Vertebrates 5c - Integument of the rest Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebrates 5c - Integument of the rest Deck (47)
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2

Amphibian skin

Glandular (granular, mucous), no scales, thin protective layer (stratum corneum)

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Granular gland in amphibian

Some make antimicrobials, toxins (like parotid),

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Mucous in amphibians

Help keep skin moist, traps bacteria and parasites

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Reptilian skin

Thick stratum corneum; epidermal keratin plates/scales; only from epidermis; no mucous glands

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Layers of reptilian epidermis

Outer epidermal generation, fission zone, inner epidermal generation, stratum germinativum (stem cells), then dermis.

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Problem with reptilian skin?

Very thick and dead, can’t expand. Must shed of molt. Fission zone becomes active and it molts. The living cells below keratinize and die before molting.

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Reptilian claws

Made of keratin. Used for grasping, digging. Hunting (raptors)

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Bird skin

Scales of keratin on feet, claws/talons. Similar to reptiles.

10

Feathers

An outgrowth, interaction of epidermis and dermis to leave dead cells with lots of keratin. Similar to hair formation.

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Vane and Rachis

The fan or surface area and The central shaft

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Barbs and barbules

Barbs perpendicular the rachis, barbules perpendicular to barbs

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Hooklets

On the barbules. Hold the vane together, Can separate and reattach (preening)

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Contour feathers

Most of the feathers on the outside of the bird. Different types.

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Flight feathers

Some of the longest feathers; rachis is to one side of the feather (asymmetrical). Primary on outer wing, secondary inner. Coverts on the front edge of wings

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Down feathers

Not as organized, no hooklets. Underneath contour feathers, insulate

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Bristle feathers

Found in some birds around the eyes to protect them. Longer rachis (relatively)

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Main roles of feathers

Flight/locomotion, and insulation.

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Muscles and feathers

All contour feathers have arrector pili attached. Used to fluff up and insulate, and to rotate to help in flight.

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Evolution of feathers

Proto-feathers about 200mya. Shape with just rachis, barbs but not barbules, etc. True feathers and Flight came around 150mya

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Dinos

Some may have had many true feathers. (like Yutyrannus huali).

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What needed for flight?

Feathers, light, need wings

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Archaeopteryx

First wing/bird. Has feathers and wings, but still had teeth. Might not have flown very well (shorter wings)

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Microraptor

Has longer wings but…….

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Beak

Forms over the bone in lower and upper jaw. Made of keratin. Makes head lighter, replaced teeth. The beak has evolved for certain feeding methods/diets

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Flamingo beak

Beak strains algae and invert. Filter feeding.

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Uropygial gland

aka preening gland, common in ducks, geese. Secretes waxy substance. Bird preens to spread this.

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Mammals

Stratum corneum thickness varies b/w animals and areas of same animal.

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Hair

Mammalian synapomorphy. Follicle is alive, but hair itself is dead cells. Keratin. Formed from interaction b/w dermis and epidermis.

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Pelage

Guard hairs and underhair. Most animals have this

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Quills

Same formation as hair. Hollow core, with hooks on end