Flashcards in Vertebrates 16 - Intelligence Deck (26)
Rod shot through front of brain. Lived, but behaviour changed (more obnoxious than before). People believe that it may have changed do to disruption of frontal lobe
How have we learned about the brain?
Often through brain damage/surgery. Behaviour often changes as a result.
How else can we study the brain?
Functional imaging: PET (small radioactive particles) and fMRI (magnetic field change).
Viewed with PET scan (radioactive glucose). Mostly in Left frontal lobe (Broca’s area).
hippocampus, prefrontal cortex. Viewed with fMRI, watch which areas are receiving most O2 (fMRI traces Hemoglobin - iron!)
Video of dog that can count. Also the “Clever Hans (horse) effect” who could do math, but only in presence of trainer - subtle cues.
ALL animals can learn to some degree (not an overly intelligent thing)
Insight vs trial and error
Trial and error, ex Skinner Box. Do things more that seem to work. Insight is solving problems without doing it multiple times, ie thinking ahead.
Video: Kohle experiment
Chimps with banana high on string, use boxes and sticks to get them.
Video: Debate around insight
Some think they have learned “insight” by trial and error. Controlled for by making it a novel problem (raven raised from chicks still able to pull up the right string). Insightful learning does rely on some trial and error, even in humans.
Eg. herbivore (gorilla) vs omnivore (chimps). Chimps tend to rank higher intelligence. Omnivore diet requires different strategies.
Human evolution and intelligence
Belief that humans were forced to be more versatile to gain food (hunting, traveling for food).
Bishof-Koehler: only humans can show foresight. Pig story - start squealing before running at electric fence. Possible?
Foresight and Jays
Two compartments for breakfast, one where not given breakfast. Birds would take food from one and store it at the other, and more of it. Seem to show foresight
Mirror test. Chimps with paint on a nonvisible part of face, use mirror to locate it. Dolphins and orcas too (trickier), elephants, corvids.
Language (social communication)
Connected learning, cultural transmission (not talking). Blue titmouse: learned to pick through aluminum foil to get into milk, behaviour seemed to spread to all titmouse (probably observing). Another bird learned it too but it didn’t spread
Animals (like dogs or dolphins) can be trained to understand words, but syntax? Sign language study mixed order, and the dolphins understand the syntax
clicks, whistles, squeaks, 0.25 to 150 kHz. Low end = social, high end = echolaction
Produced by blowing air out of nares, nasal sacs make clicks, which travel through the water, echos off the swim bladder of fish. Echo back vibrates through the jaw back to the inner ear.
Reading: Human language
Possibly due to the evolution of a single gene involved in language. FOXP2.
Reading: What genetic evidence is there that FOXP2 is involved in language?
Looked at a pedigree with a speech impediment (couldn’t learn/speak). Autosomal dominant trait. Gene mapping, found on chromo. 7.
Reading: What other evidence is there that FOXP2 is involved in language?
Take fMRI during language tasks, look at Broca’s area. In affected individuals Broca’s area lights up a bit, but much activity scattered elsewhere.
Reading: What protein is made by FOXP2 gene?
Makes TF, controls gene expression. Mutation could alter this
Reading: What is the difference in the FOXP2 gene b/w humans and chimps? What’s the effect?
Only a.a. changes in the protein. Put the TFs into FOXP2 knockout neurons, measure effects in expression (DNA microarray and RT-PCR). Large difference! dozens of genes increased or decreased relative to chimps
Reading: FOXP2 in mice.
KO mouse FOXP2, then knock in human version. Physiology of brain much different. Long-term depression in the mice, pups make different sound frequency