Vertebrates 3 - Techniques Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebrates 3 - Techniques Deck (16)
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2

Physiology is Multidisciplinary

Need to understand gravity, circuitry, etc.

3

Why study physiology

Scientific curiosity, Commercial/Agricultural, Human/Medical

4

Epithelia - why different types?

Squamous is protective layer, little volume; cuboidal has more volume therefor can have higher metabolic activity

5

General themes

Structure/Function, adaptation/evolution (eg whales), acclimatization (in response to environment), homeostasis

6

Tracing molecules

Fluorescent or radioactive tags (P32, I125, Ca45, H3) eg glucose; also use antibodies

7

Genetic engineering

cloning genes (insulin); transgenic knockouts or knockin

8

Reading: How do you test for fear in a mouse?

Classical conditioning to observe response. They freeze in their movements. (evolutionary - freezing makes it harder fro predator to see). The shock does not cause the freeze.

9

Reading: What part of brain is used in fear memories? How do we know?

Amygdala. Part of limbic system with the hippocampus. We know that by electrode stimulus, studying brain damage/lesion animal studies, functional MRI to image blood flow to brain regions.

10

Reading: Why do GRPR-/- mice have greater and more persistent fearful memories?

GRPR on in amygdala. KO mice froze more than nonKO. Controlled by testing general memory with mazes. Principle neurons are not modulated by interneurons in KO.

11

Reading: What implications does the GRP study have for human treatment?

Some people might have less GRP/GRPR, could increase GABA to help calm fear of people with post-traumatic stress.

12

Cellular techniques

microelectrodes/micropipettes (electricity in neurons, ions, gases, pH, pressure, microinjection), structural analysis of cells (histology, microscopy), cell culture (simulate internal environment)

13

Biochemical analysis

Chromatography, electrophoresis

14

Isolated organ and organ systems

study and isolated organ in a nutrient environment; can test drugs; tests done on heart, pineal gland

15

Observation techniques

Dissection, autopsy; observe (video) behaviours in breeding, diet, etc.; experimental setups

16

Imaging techniques

CAT (computer assisted tomography), MRI, PET (positron emission tomography)

17

Physiological state of animal research

Scientists MUST consider animal's state before experimenting, day/night cycles affect behaviour in lab which can affect physiology (hormones, anxiety, immune function)