Vertebrates 2 - Classification Flashcards Preview

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2

3 domains

Prokarya, Archaea, Eukarya

3

Kingdoms in Eukarya

Protists, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia

4

Phylum of vertebrates

Chordata (falls under Animalia Kingdom)

5

Breakdown of Chordata

Urochordata (tunicates), Cephalochordata (Amphioxus), Craniata (Hagfish, vertebrates)

6

5 synapomorphies of all chordates (p28)

Pharyngeal pouches, Notochord, Endostyle, Hollow Nerve chord, postanal muscular tail

7

Pharyngeal pouches

Becomes parts of gills, or inner ear.

8

Endostyle

groove in pharynx. In some vertebrates it becomes part of thyroid; other just stays as a groove.

9

Notochord

Fibrous tissue like cartilage that acts as a support for the body. Found on Dorsal side below the nerve chord. Sometimes found in adult.

10

Hollow Nerve chord

Anterior end may become brain in higher vertebrates

11

Postanal tail

Muscular, past anal opening. Present at some point in development.

12

Urochordata

Sea squirts. Don’t move. Filter feed. Adult doesn’t look like vertebrate, but larva stage is mobile and has all the vertebrate characteristics.

13

Cephalochordata

Lives buried in sand, filter feeding. Possesses chordata characteristics.

14

Are Urochordata or Cephalochordata more closely related to Craniata?

Actually Urochordata (genomic comparison).

15

Craniata

Has a cranium (brain case); Cephalization (specialized sensory structures at anterior end)

16

Craniata categories

Hagfish and vertebrates.

17

Craniates synapomorphies

Neural crest cells; brain case; complex sense organs; tripartite brain; complex endocrine system; muscularization of the gut tube; differentiation of digestive system; multichambered heart; type of hemoglobin

18

Neural Crest cells

Become part of peripheral nervous system. Develop during development

19

Tripartite brain

A true brain. Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain.

20

How are vertebrates classified?

Generally by shared anatomical characteristics; in last 20 years we use molecular comparisons.

21

Examples of shared anatomical characteristics (p15)

Amniotic egg, hair, endothermy, viviparity, marsupium.

22

Closest living relative of whales and dolphins?

The hippo and other even-toed ungulates like deer (archyodactyls). Determined by molecular phylogeny.

23

Gnathostome

Organism with a Jaw. Includes all vertebrates except agnathians (lampreys and hagfish)

24

Importance of Extinct Animals

fig 3-2

25

Agnatha

Jawless fish, about 120 species. Hagfish and lampreys (closely related).

26

Hagfish

mixiniformes. Benthic, scavengers. Do not have vertebrae. Only a notochord to support the body which is not as specialized as a real vertebral column. Secrete lots of mucus as defense.

27

Lamprey

petromyzontiformes. Open ocean and benthic. Sometimes parasitic.

28

Chondrichthyes

Cartilaginous fish. No bone, just calcified cartilage. Sharks and Rays (and Ratfish and chimeras). Large, diverse group, 1000 species.

29

Osteichthyes

Bony fish. Bone replaces cartilage. 29000 species. 3 main groups: Ray-finned fishes (majority). Coelacanths and Lungfishes (only 8 species), have fleshy fins with more bones (more similar to an arm).

30

Names for Ray-finned fish, Coelacanths and lungfishes

Actinopterygii, actinistia, dipnoi

31

Amphibia

6500 species. Anurans (frogs - no tail); Salamander (Urodela), Caecillians (legless amphibians). Live part of life in water and part in land.