Vertebrates 15 - Ion Channels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vertebrates 15 - Ion Channels Deck (23)
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Graded potentials

passive spread of signals (pass charge from atom to atom. Cable properties??. Occurs at dendrites, cell bodies, at synapses, EPSP, IPSP.


Non-spiking neurons.

ie in retina, some parts of neuron. No action potentials.


Why do action potentials go more or less in one direction

Stimulus usually comes from dendrites so starts at one end, and Na channels shift to inactive so it can’t go backwards.


Speed of action potentials.

Increases with diameter of axon and myelination (Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes)


Saltatory conduction

At notes Ranvier. b/w myelination. It passes along passively, decreases at it jumps along.


Signals b’w nerves

Electro and chem synapses. Neuromuscular junction, specialized synapse. Excite or inhibit


Electric synapses (in 1959)

Passive transmission via gap junctions. Faster than chemical. In vertebrate retina, CNS, Mauthner nerves. Bidirectional!


Chemical synapses experiment

Took solution from stimulated vagus nerve from one frog heart in dish and added to another heart with no nerve. Heart slowed in both. Basically found first NT (vagusstoff)


Chemical synapses description

Unidirectional. Lots of mito., Voltage gated calcium channels in abundance. Bouton wraps around post synaptic end. NT goes across synaptic cleft. NT receptors on post synaptic are highest concentration at the synapse


Chemical synapses process

1. Electrical signal arrives at bouton. 2. Causes Ca channels to enter. 3. Ca causes exocytosis of NT vesicles. 4. [NT] increases in cleft. 5. NT binds to receptor (ligand gated channel). 6. Channel opens up, allows Na or Ca to enter and depolarize OR Cl enters and inhibits excitation.


Synaptic current

Movement of ions through ion channels at POSTSYNAPTIC membrane



excitatory post-synaptic potentials. Depolarize



inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. Hyperpolarizes


Integration of EPSP and IPSP

Generally have more EPSP than IPSP at one neuron.


Temporal Summation

Adding 2 input from same neuron really close together which increases voltage enough to depolarize. (time)


Spatial summation

Adding 2 input from two neurons at same time which increases voltage enough to depolarize. Also possible to have inhibitory and excitatory


Purkinje cell

One of major and largest neurons in cerebellum. Has 200,000 inputs. Most are excitatory. Lots of summation to generate one action potential


Brain vs computer

Brain has more plasticity than computer; computer isn’t chemical


Modulation of synaptic communication

Changes in synaptic strength, synaptic density (not constant!). Signal transduction pathways activated / altered (PKA, CA, cAMP). Plasticity seen in Agnatha too


Long term potentiation - LTP (factor in plasticity)

Greater postsynaptic response to second AP stimulus (ie works better than before). Can last hours to weeks. Glutamate receptors role. Ca activates kinases in Postsyn., NT’s get (P)’d, and turn on genes so more receptors produced. Post. can release NO which affects Pre.


LTP basis of memory - possibly?

Both form quickly, last a long time. Learning, memory impaired when LTP abolished.


Long term depression

Opposite of LTP. Signals less strong than original. LTP and LTD both important.


Long term memory

LTD and LTP involved in short term. Long term memory deals with change in synaptic density etc.