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Flashcards in VI - Neoplasia Deck (101):
1

An abnormal mass of tissue the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after the cessation of stimuli which evoked the change.

Neoplasm(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

2

Benign or malignant?Localized

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

3

Benign or malignant?Invades and destroys adjacent tissues.

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

4

What are the two basic components of tumors?

Parenchyma and Stroma(TOPNOTCH)

5

This component of tumors largely determines its biologic behavior.

Parenchyma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

6

This component of tumors determines the name of the growth.

Parenchyma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

7

This component of tumors is crucial to the growth of neoplasms since it carries the blood supply and provides support to the growth of cells.

Stroma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

8

Benign or malignant?Fibroma

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

9

Benign or malignant?Chondroma

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

10

Benign or malignant?Adenoma

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

11

Benign or malignant?Hepatoma

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

12

Benign or malignant?Papilloma

Benign(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

13

Malignant neoplasms arising in mesenchymal tissue or its derivatives.

Sarcomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

14

Benign tumor arising in fibrous tissue is called?

Fibroma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

15

A benign cartilagenous tumor is called?

Chondroma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

16

This is a benign epithelial neoplasm which produces glandular patterns or neoplasms derived from glands but not necessarily exhibit glandular patterns

Adenoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

17

These are benign epithelial neoplasms, growing on any surface that produce microscopic or macroscopic finger-like fronds.

Papillomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.174

18

A mass that projects above a mucosal surface to form a macroscopically visible structure.

Polyps(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

19

A cancer of fibrous tissue origin.

Fibrosarcoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

20

Malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin.

Carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.175

21

Carcinoma of squamous cell origin.

Squamous cell carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

22

Benign or malignant?Lymphoma

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

23

Benign or malignant?Seminoma

Malignant(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

24

The extent to which neoplastic cells resemble their normal forebears morphologically and functionally.

Differentiation(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.176

25

This is considered a hallmark of malignancy, which literally means "to form backward".

Anaplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.177

26

These cells display marked pleomorphism, nuclei are variable and bizzare in size and shape. Chromatin is course and clumped. Mitoses are often numerous and distinctly atypical.

Anaplastic cells(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.177

27

This term is defined by disorderly but non-neoplastic proliferation of cells, described as a loss in uniformity of individual cells and in their architectural orientation.

Dysplasia(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.178

28

Defined as dysplastic changes which involve the entire thickness of the epithelium.

Carcinoma -in- situ(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.178

29

True or false?Dysplasia always progress to cancer.

False(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.178

30

True or false?Lack of capsule in a neoplastic growth indicates malignancy.

FalseSome benign tumors are not encapsulated.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.179

31

This term describes the development of secondary implants discontinuous with the primary tumor, in remote tissues.

Metastasis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.179

32

Next to metastasis, this is the most reliable feature that distinguishes malignant from benign tumors.

Local invasiveness(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.179

33

Methods of dissemination of malignant neoplasms? (3)

SeedingLymphatic spreadHematogenous spread(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

34

This is the mode of dissemination of cancers of the ovary and CNS.

Spread by seeding(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

35

This is the mode of dissemination more typical of carcinomas.

Lymphatic spread(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

36

This is the mode of dissemination more typical of sarcomas.

Hematogenous spread(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

37

It is defined as the first lymph node in a regional lymphatic basin that receives lymph flow from a primary tumor.

Sentinel lymph node(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.180

38

What are the most common sites of metastasis involved in hematogenous dissemination of cancer?

Liver and lungs(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.181

39

This substance is a byproduct of metal smelting, a component of alloys, electrical and semiconductor devices which could cause cancer of the lungs and skin and hemangiosarcomas.

Arsenic and its compounds(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

40

This substance was formerly used for fire-resistant textiles and construction materials which could cause lung cancer and more prominently malignant mesothelioma

Asbestos(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

41

This substance is commonly used as a solvent in paint, rubber, dry cleaning, adhesives and detergents which could cause leukemias and Hodgkin lymphoma.

Benzene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

42

This substance is used as hardener for metal alloys used in aerospace applications and nuclear reactors which is commonly associated with cancer of the lung.

Beryllium and its compounds(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

43

This substance is used in solders, batteries and metal alloys commonly associated with cancers of the prostate.

Cadmium and its compounds(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

44

This substance is a refrigerant and used as adhesive for plastics, which causes hepatic angiosarcoma.

Vinyl chloride(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.183

45

Inherited gene : Cancer syndromeRB gene :__________

Retinoblastoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

46

Inherited gene : Cancer syndromep53 : ______________

Li Fraumeni Syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

47

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome__________ : Familial Adenomatous Polyposis / Colon CA

APC Gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

48

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome_________ : Breast on Ovarian Tumors

BRCA 1 gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

49

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome_________ : Breast Cancer only

BRCA 2 gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

50

Inherited gene : Cancer syndromeRET gene : _________

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 1 and 2(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

51

Inherited gene : Cancer syndrome__________ : Colon cancer

kras gene(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.184

52

Normal cellular genes whose products promote cell proliferation.

Proto-oncogenes(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.188

53

It is a naturally occurring carcinogenic agent produced by some strains of Aspergillus, a mold that grows on improperly stored grains and nuts.

Aflatoxin B(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.209

54

There is a strong correlation between the dietary level of Aflatoxin and what type of cancer?

Hepatocellular Carcinoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.209

55

These substances stimulate proliferation of the mutated cells.

Promoters(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.210

56

How does ionizing radiation cause cancer?

Through chromosome breakage, translocations and point mutations leading to genetic damage and carcinogenesis.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.210

57

What is the mechanism of action of UV rays in the formation of neoplastic cells?

UV rays induce formation of pyrimidine dimers within DNA leading to mutations.(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.210

58

This is the only retrovirus that has been demonstrated to cause cancer in humans.

Human T-cell Leukemia Virus -1 (HTLV-1)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.211

59

HPV strains which has been implicated in the genesis of cervical and anorectal cancer.

HPV 16, 18(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.212

60

EBV has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the following cancers except:A. Burkitt lymphomaB. Lymphoma in HIV patientsC. Nasopharyngeal carcinomaD. Hodgkin lymphomaE. None of the above

E. none of the above(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.212

61

Which hepatitis virus leads to hepatocellular carcinoma?

HBV, HCV(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.213

62

This is the first bacterium to be classified as a carcinogen.

Helicobacter pylori(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.213

63

What type of cancer can be caused by H.pylori?

Gastric adenocarcinoma Gastric MALT lymphomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.214

64

These are benign epithelial neoplasms, growing on any surface that produce microscopic or macroscopic finger-like fronds.

Papillomas(TOPNOTCH)

65

Tumor antigens are presented on the cell surface by MHC Class I molecules to which type of T lymphocytes?

CD8+ T lymphocytes(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p.215

66

Single most important defining characteristic of malignancy

Metastasis (TOPNOTCH)

67

A biopsy of the stomach reveals an area of normal appearing pancreatic tissue. This is an example of what type of lesion?

Choristoma (TOPNOTCH)

68

Bronchogenic carcinoma tends to metastasize where?

Adrenals and brain (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 274

69

The most frequent form of cancer in males

Prostate cancer (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 276

70

The most frequent form of cancer in females

Breast cancer (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 276

71

Most common cause of cancer death in both male and female

Lung cancer (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 276

72

Two viral oncoproteins present in HPV that gives rise to cancers

E6 and E7, which neutralizes Rb and p53, respectively (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 203

73

Most important infectious agent associated with cervical carcinoma and head and neck cancers.

Human papilloma virus (TOPNOTCH)

74

Leukoplakia may give rise to what type of carcinoma?

Squamous carcinoma (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 279

75

Most common type of abnormality involving proto-oncogenes in human tumors

Point mutations of RAS family genes(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 286

76

Activation of ABL nonreceptor tyrosine kinase by chromosomal translocation and creation of BCR-ABL fusion gene is associated with what type of leukemia

CML, ALL(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 290

77

"Guardian of the genome", a tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell cycle progression, DNA repair, cellular senescence, and apoptosis, and the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers

p53 (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 293

78

"Gatekeeper of colonic neoplasia"; tumor suppressor that function by downregulating growth-promoting signaling pathways.

APC (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 296

79

Autosomal dominant disorder characterized by familial carcinomas of the colon predominantly cecum and proximal colon.

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) syndrome (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 314

80

Syndrome causing colon cancer resulting from defects in a family of genes encoding a group of proteins that work together to carry out DNA mismatch repair.

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) syndrome (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 314

81

The increased incidence of skin cancer following UV light exposure associated with xeroderma pigmentosus is caused by:

Disorder of DNA repair/inability to repair pyrimidine dimers(HNPCC) syndrome (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 314

82

Pathogenesis of this tumor involves the translocation resulting to overactivity of MYC gene

Burkitt lymphoma(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 317

83

Philadelphia chromosome is characteristic of what type of leukemia

CML(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 317

84

An important cause of benign warts, cervical cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer

HPV (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 329

85

Implicated in gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma

H. pylori(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 329

86

Cytokine implicated in cancer cachexia

TNF-alpha(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 330

87

The most common endocrinopathy ; usually seen in small-cell lung carcinoma

Cushing syndrome(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 330

88

The most common paraneoplastic syndrome related to cancer; seen in patients with squamous cell carcinoma

Hypercalcemia(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 330

89

The most important humoral factor associated with paraneoplastic hypercalcemia of malignancy.

PTHRP(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 330

90

Tumor marker:Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

Calcitonin(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 337

91

Tumor marker:Trophoblastic tumors

Human chorionic gonadotropin(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 337

92

Tumor marker: liver cell cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumor

Alpha fetoprotein(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 337

93

Tumor markers: prostate cancer

PSA and prostatic acid phosphatase (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p.337

94

Tumor marker: pheochromocytoma

Catecholamine(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 337

95

Tumor marker: ovarian cancer

CA-125(TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 337

96

Cervical biopsy of a 35 y/o female with cervical erosion shows squamous epithelium that exhibit atypia, pleomorphism, disorderly spatial arrangement. This adaptive response is:

Dysplasia (TOPNOTCH)

97

RAS oncogene qualitatively changes function of proto-oncogene through which form of mutation?

Point mutations (TOPNOTCH) Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th ed., p. 286

98

Chemical carcinogen implicated in the causation of mesothelioma

Asbestos(TOPNOTCH)

99

A 56 year old woman with a breast mass has a preoperative diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma by core needle biopsy, with no palpable axillary lymph nodes. She undergoes surgery where her breast mass is injected with a blue dye, and the first axillary node that takes up the dye is submitted to pathology. Which method is next done on the node if the surgeon wants to know within minutes if there is metastasis? (A) fine needle aspiration (B) frozen section (C) immunohistochemistry (D) flow cytometry

frozen section (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed, p 220

100

A 25 year old male with an intranasal mass undergoes a tissue biopsy that shows malignant round cells. The pathologist needs to know if it is an undifferentiated carcinoma or a lymphoma. What can be done to differentiate? (A) Frozen section (B) Immunohistochemistry (C) Flow cytometry (D) serologic tumor markers

Immunohistochemistry (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed pp220-221

101

A 12 year old female presents with pallor and gum bleeding. A complete blood count with peripheral smear shows numerous blasts. What is needed to be done on her bone marrow for a more precise diagnosis? (A) frozen section (B) papanicolau smear (C) aspiration and flow cytometry (D) serologic tumor markers

aspiration and flow cytometry (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th Ed p 221