Flashcards in Vitamins and Cofactors Deck (22):
a biochemically active compound formed by the combination of an enzyme with a cofactor.
Enzymes that require a cofactor but do not have one bound.
Oxidizes ethanol to acetylaldehyde.
Gains TWO electrons
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
Vitamin precursor of NAD+ and NADP+.
Niacin (vitamin B3)
dietary source of niacin
Meat, whole grains, fortified cereal
Pellagra: characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia
are associated with __________ deficiency.
cofactor that Oxidizes ethanol to acetylaldehyde.
Gains TWO electrons
redox cofactor used in fuel oxidation.
redox cofactor used in detoxification and biosynthesis.
enzymes dependent on NAD+ and NADP+
ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase), cytochromeP450, and HMG CoA
redox cofactor that:
-accept a single electron at two separate locations
Flavin adenine dinucleotide
vitamin precursor of FAD
Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
dietary sources of riboflavin
Milk, eggs, organ meats, legumes, mushrooms
pathologies of riboflavin deficiency
Cheilosis, glossitis, keratitis, seborreic dermatitis, normocytic anemia
redox cofactor creating and breaking double bonds and disulfide bonds
enzyme: succinate dehyrogenase
redox cofactor for Hydroxylase enzymes important in collagen synthesis, neurotransmitter synthesis and oxygen sensing
-also a non-enzymatic anti-oxidant
-found in citrus fruits and vegetables
ascorbic acid (vit C)
characterized by defects in connective tissue
Sx: slow wound healing, apathy/irritability, anemia, gingival lesions, enlargement of costochondral junctions, petechiae
vitamin precursor of TPP
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)
thiamine deficiency is caused by:
malnutrition, alcoholism, monotonous diet
Beriberi (I cant, I cant): characterized by headache, malaise, peripheral neuropathy (dry), and heart failure (wet)
Wernicke encephalopathy: confusion and altered mental status, abnormal eye movements, ataxia
Karsokoff psychosis: amnesia, confabulation
All are pathologies of:
activation transfer cofactor that forms a covalent bond with lysine residue side chains on transacylase subunits of a-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes