Vitamins and Cofactors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vitamins and Cofactors Deck (22):
1

a biochemically active compound formed by the combination of an enzyme with a cofactor.

holoenzyme

2

Enzymes that require a cofactor but do not have one bound.

apoenzyme

3

Oxidizes ethanol to acetylaldehyde.
Gains TWO electrons

NAD+
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

4

Vitamin precursor of NAD+ and NADP+.

Niacin (vitamin B3)

5

dietary source of niacin

Meat, whole grains, fortified cereal

6

Pellagra: characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia
are associated with __________ deficiency.

niacin

7

cofactor that Oxidizes ethanol to acetylaldehyde.
Gains TWO electrons

NAD+

8

redox cofactor used in fuel oxidation.

NAD+

9

redox cofactor used in detoxification and biosynthesis.

NADP+

10

enzymes dependent on NAD+ and NADP+

ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase), cytochromeP450, and HMG CoA

11

redox cofactor that:
-accept a single electron at two separate locations
-prosthetic

FAD
Flavin adenine dinucleotide

12

vitamin precursor of FAD

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

13

dietary sources of riboflavin

Milk, eggs, organ meats, legumes, mushrooms

14

pathologies of riboflavin deficiency

Cheilosis, glossitis, keratitis, seborreic dermatitis, normocytic anemia

15

redox cofactor creating and breaking double bonds and disulfide bonds
enzyme: succinate dehyrogenase

FAD

16

redox cofactor for Hydroxylase enzymes important in collagen synthesis, neurotransmitter synthesis and oxygen sensing
-also a non-enzymatic anti-oxidant
-found in citrus fruits and vegetables

ascorbic acid (vit C)

17

characterized by defects in connective tissue
Sx: slow wound healing, apathy/irritability, anemia, gingival lesions, enlargement of costochondral junctions, petechiae

scurvy

18

vitamin precursor of TPP
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)

thiamine

19

thiamine deficiency is caused by:

malnutrition, alcoholism, monotonous diet

20

Beriberi (I cant, I cant): characterized by headache, malaise, peripheral neuropathy (dry), and heart failure (wet)
Wernicke encephalopathy: confusion and altered mental status, abnormal eye movements, ataxia
Karsokoff psychosis: amnesia, confabulation
All are pathologies of:

thiamine deficiency

21

activation transfer cofactor that forms a covalent bond with lysine residue side chains on transacylase subunits of a-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes

lipoate

22

activation transfer cofactor that metabolizes amino acids with tranaminases. precursor: vit B6

PLP
Pyridoxal phosphate