The scientific study of old age, the process of aging, and particular problems with older adults
What is ageism?
The discrimination of a person based off of age
What are some common ageist beliefs about older adults?
That they are slow mentally and physically, they are stagnant, they don’t change, they are stupid and behind the times
Define Life Expectancy
Probable number of years remaining in life determined statistically.
This is affected by factors such as heredity, physical health, nutrition, and occupation
The average or maximum length of time an organism material, or object is expected to last. (Statistical number based on when you were born)
What are the 6 biological theories of aging?
Winnie Found Incredible Conditions Not Perilous
- Wear and Tear
- Free radical
- Programmed longevity
What are the aspects of the wear and tear theory of ageing?
- Aging is the result of injury over time
- Cells wear out and need to repair, again results when repair cant keep up with injuries
What are the aspects of the free radical theory of ageing?
-Products of oxidation free radicals result in cell breakdown resulting in disease and cancer
What are the aspects of the immunological theory of ageing?
Decline in immune function increases vulnerability to disease. Low t-cells
What are the aspects of the cross-link theory of ageing?
Connective tissue loosens over time. Loss in elastisity causes ageing
What are the aspects of the neuroendocrine/chemical theory of ageing?
Exposure to hazards like carcinogens or sunlight cause damage and disease to body or endocrine organs which lead to more disease via abnormal hormone levels
What are the aspects of the programmed longevity theory of ageing?
(AKA the clockwork theory)
Involuntary and inherit process that alters cellular tissue.
-fixed number of cell divisions
What are the three main psychosocial theories of aging
Dan Ate Cheese
- Disengagement theory
- Activity theory
- Continuity theory
What is Disengagement theory of ageing?
(no supporting evidence)
The theory that as one ages there is a gradual and mutual withdraw from society
What is the Activity theory of ageing
Suggests that when an OA denies limitations they are able to and will remain more active and engaged in society.
- this is the opposite of disengagement theory
- Stay active to age successfully
- activity can be physical, social, or a combination
What is the continuity theory of ageing?
- Ties into activity theory
- An individual maintains personality and coping abilities as they age
- OA’s will continue the life they had when they were younger
What is primary ageing?
Universal and irreversible physical changes that occur as individuals age
What is secondary ageing?
-Common ageing illnesses or conditions that vary from person to person caused by habits, genes, or environmental factors
What are the three stages of “old”?
- Young old 65-75
- Middle-old 75-85
- old-old 85 and up
What are the 6 Developmental theories of ageing?
Emily Found Henry Picking Kale Flowers
What are the main themes in Erickson’s theory of development
- Erickson focused on Developmental Crises
- OA’s should be in Erickson’s last stage which is Ego-Integrity vs Despair
- Success in this stage comes from accepting ones life as it has happened and knowing that one still has the ability to start things anew.
- Failure to accept ones life and accomplishments and fear of not being able to start anew will lead to despair that evolves into a fear of death.
- Encourage one to reminisce and tell stories from past to help obtain ego integrity
What stage of Freud’s psychosexual development are OA’s in? what are the main elements of this stage?
- In genital Stage
- Relationships and intimacy are main focus of this stage
What are the main components in Havighurst’s developmental theory. What is the major task in old age?
- Focuses on Developmental tasks that need to be done in order to continue healthy development.
- Tasks come at certain periods in ones life and lead to happiness if task is completed.
- Havighurst implies that it is the responsibility of the individual to ensure development.
- The major task in OA’s time is “To clarify, deepen, and find use for what one has already obtained in a lifetime of learning and adaptation.
What are the main elements of Piaget’s theory of development?
- Piaget focused on cognitive development.
- OA’s should have reached the formal operational stage of development. This stage must be identified prior to any diagnosis of a degenerative cognitive disease or it can never be confirmed as being reached.
- Formal Operational stage is characterized by the ability to use abstract thinking and to use deductive reasoning skills
What are the main elements of Kholberg’s theory of development?
- Focus on Moral Development
- Conventional: Respects values and ideals of others
- Post-conventional: Uses rational Moral judgment that is internalized
What are the main elements of Fowler’s theory of development?
- Focus on faith development
- In later life, Faith should universalize
- Absolute love and justice above strict doctrine
- Strong hope, love and commitment