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Nurse 146 Nursing Care Of The Older Adult > Week 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 8 Deck (41)
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1
Q

What are the five main musculoskeletal changes of aging?

A
  • Decreased height
  • Decreased body mass
  • Decreased joint cartilage
  • Increased time for muscle contraction/relaxation
  • Stiffening of thoracic cage, joints, and ligaments
2
Q

What two factors contribute to increased time for muscle contraction and relaxation due to aging?

A
  • Slower messaging in nerves

- Stiffened ligaments and joints

3
Q

What is a major implications of the stiffening of the thoracic cage?

A

reduced pulmonary function

4
Q

What are the three most common musculoskeletal disorders in OAs

A
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
5
Q

What is osteoporosis?

A

Low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the bone resulting in increased fragility and increased risk of fractures

  • More common in women
  • An imbalance of bone building/takedown
6
Q

What are some contributing factors of osteoporosis?

A
  • Reduced estrogen in women
  • Wear and tear degeneration of bones
  • reduced weight bearing activity
7
Q

What medications can be used to treat osteoporosis?

A
  • Biphosphonates (bone resorption inhibitor)
  • -Alendronate
  • Hormones: Hypocalcemic
  • -calcitonin
8
Q

What is osteoarthritis?

A

Non-inflammatory degenerative joint disease where the cartilage thins in heavily used joints (Hips, hands, knees, spine)
-Wear and tare disease

9
Q

What is the number one drug for osteoarthritis?

A

Acetaminophen

10
Q

What types of drugs are used for osteoarthritis?

A
  • NSAIDS
  • COX-2 inhibitor
  • Steroids
  • Glucosamine Condroitin Sulfate
  • Injected artificial joint fluid
11
Q

What is the number one complaint in osteoarthritis

A

joint pain

12
Q

What non-medicinal treatments can be used for osteoarthritis?

A
  • Heat or cold
  • Balanced activity
  • Lose weight
  • Walking
13
Q

What is Rheumatoid arthritis?

A

a Chronic autoimmune disease what causes inflammation in the joints
-Leads to destroyed joints and bones

14
Q

What type of medications are used to tread Rheumatoid Arthritis?

A
  • DMARD’s (Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs)
  • –Methotrexate
  • Also some NSAIDS and Corticosterioids
15
Q

What are the primary aging changes to the neurological system?

A
  • Decreased neurons, brain size, cerebral blood flow, sensori-motor processing
  • Slower peripheral nerve conduction
  • No regeneration of neurons
16
Q

What are the two common neurological disorders?

A

Parkinson’s and CVA

17
Q

What is Parkinson’s?

A

A neurological degenerative disease caused by a decline in dopamine

18
Q

What are some signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease?

A
  • Tremors
  • Bradykinesia
  • Rigid muscles (Mask face)
  • Impaired posture
  • Loss of automatic movements
  • speech changes
  • Dementia
19
Q

What type of medication is used to treat Parkinson’s?

A

Dopamine Agonists

-They stimulate dopamine receptors

20
Q

What problems are associated with Parkinson’s?

A
  • Depression
  • Sleeping Problems
  • Difficulty Chewing and Swallowing
  • Urinary incontinence or urine retention
  • Constipation
  • Sexual dysfunction
21
Q

What is a CVA?

A

Cerebrovascular accident

22
Q

What are the two types of CVA?

A

Ischemic stroke (80%) and Hemorrhagic stroke

23
Q

What are the clinical manifestations of a CVA

A
  • Paralysis or loss of movement
  • Difficulty talking or swallowing
  • Memory loss or confusion
  • Pain
24
Q

What are the signs specific to Thrombotic strokes?

A
  • Facial droop
  • Slurred speech
  • Paralysis on one side of the body
25
Q

What is Aphasia?

A

cant talk

26
Q

What is disphagia?

A

Difficulty swallowing

27
Q

What is global aphasia?

A

Nothing is understood, inability to communicate verbally

28
Q

What does TIA stand for?

A

Transient Ischemic Attack

29
Q

What should be done the moment you suspect a CVA?

A

Have the patient chew 325mg of aspirin

30
Q

What are the three main medications given for CVA’s?

A
  • Salicylate
  • Thrombolytics, plasminogen activator
  • Antiplatelet agents, platelet aggregation inhibitors
31
Q

What is expressive aphasia?

A

Difficulty speaking, faulty grammar

32
Q

What is Apraxia?

A

Misuse of words

33
Q

What is Amaurosis fugax

A

Fleeting blindness(usually mono-ocular associated with TIA)

34
Q

What is Agnosia?

A

Inability to recognize common objects

35
Q

What is Dysarthria?

A

Problems with articulation, slurred speech

36
Q

What is Hemiplegia?

A

Paralysis on one side of the body

37
Q

What is Hemianopsia

A

Defective vision, visual field, or blindness on one side

38
Q

What is right or left neglect?

A

Distortion of perception of depth, vertical, and horizontal orientation

39
Q

What is Hemispatial neglect?

A

Failure to report, respond, or orient to novel stimuli presented to the side of the body opposite of the brain lesion

40
Q

What is Spasticity?

A

Uncontrolled muscle contractions

41
Q

What is Ataxia?

A

Inability to coordinate movements, staggering gait, postural imbalance