What are the five main musculoskeletal changes of aging?
- Decreased height
- Decreased body mass
- Decreased joint cartilage
- Increased time for muscle contraction/relaxation
- Stiffening of thoracic cage, joints, and ligaments
What two factors contribute to increased time for muscle contraction and relaxation due to aging?
- Slower messaging in nerves
- Stiffened ligaments and joints
What is a major implications of the stiffening of the thoracic cage?
reduced pulmonary function
What are the three most common musculoskeletal disorders in OAs
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
What is osteoporosis?
Low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the bone resulting in increased fragility and increased risk of fractures
- More common in women
- An imbalance of bone building/takedown
What are some contributing factors of osteoporosis?
- Reduced estrogen in women
- Wear and tear degeneration of bones
- reduced weight bearing activity
What medications can be used to treat osteoporosis?
- Biphosphonates (bone resorption inhibitor)
- Hormones: Hypocalcemic
What is osteoarthritis?
Non-inflammatory degenerative joint disease where the cartilage thins in heavily used joints (Hips, hands, knees, spine)
-Wear and tare disease
What is the number one drug for osteoarthritis?
What types of drugs are used for osteoarthritis?
- COX-2 inhibitor
- Glucosamine Condroitin Sulfate
- Injected artificial joint fluid
What is the number one complaint in osteoarthritis
What non-medicinal treatments can be used for osteoarthritis?
- Heat or cold
- Balanced activity
- Lose weight
What is Rheumatoid arthritis?
a Chronic autoimmune disease what causes inflammation in the joints
-Leads to destroyed joints and bones
What type of medications are used to tread Rheumatoid Arthritis?
- DMARD’s (Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs)
- Also some NSAIDS and Corticosterioids
What are the primary aging changes to the neurological system?
- Decreased neurons, brain size, cerebral blood flow, sensori-motor processing
- Slower peripheral nerve conduction
- No regeneration of neurons
What are the two common neurological disorders?
Parkinson’s and CVA
What is Parkinson’s?
A neurological degenerative disease caused by a decline in dopamine
What are some signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease?
- Rigid muscles (Mask face)
- Impaired posture
- Loss of automatic movements
- speech changes
What type of medication is used to treat Parkinson’s?
-They stimulate dopamine receptors
What problems are associated with Parkinson’s?
- Sleeping Problems
- Difficulty Chewing and Swallowing
- Urinary incontinence or urine retention
- Sexual dysfunction
What is a CVA?
What are the two types of CVA?
Ischemic stroke (80%) and Hemorrhagic stroke
What are the clinical manifestations of a CVA
- Paralysis or loss of movement
- Difficulty talking or swallowing
- Memory loss or confusion
What are the signs specific to Thrombotic strokes?
- Facial droop
- Slurred speech
- Paralysis on one side of the body
What is Aphasia?
What is disphagia?
What is global aphasia?
Nothing is understood, inability to communicate verbally
What does TIA stand for?
Transient Ischemic Attack
What should be done the moment you suspect a CVA?
Have the patient chew 325mg of aspirin
What are the three main medications given for CVA’s?
- Thrombolytics, plasminogen activator
- Antiplatelet agents, platelet aggregation inhibitors
What is expressive aphasia?
Difficulty speaking, faulty grammar
What is Apraxia?
Misuse of words
What is Amaurosis fugax
Fleeting blindness(usually mono-ocular associated with TIA)
What is Agnosia?
Inability to recognize common objects
What is Dysarthria?
Problems with articulation, slurred speech
What is Hemiplegia?
Paralysis on one side of the body
What is Hemianopsia
Defective vision, visual field, or blindness on one side
What is right or left neglect?
Distortion of perception of depth, vertical, and horizontal orientation
What is Hemispatial neglect?
Failure to report, respond, or orient to novel stimuli presented to the side of the body opposite of the brain lesion
What is Spasticity?
Uncontrolled muscle contractions
What is Ataxia?
Inability to coordinate movements, staggering gait, postural imbalance