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Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (50)
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1

What is speech and voice?

specific to sounds of the mouth used for communication

2

What happened in the evolution of the human vocal tract?

Babies' vocal tract is above their throat, preventing choking. As humans get older, their larynx descends into the vocal tract and lifts each time one swallows, etc.

3

What is a drawback to the evolution of the human vocal tract?

Airway protection has increased the risk of choking, and aspiration pneumonia

4

What is cerebral differentiation?

the separation of different structures for different purposes in the brain

5

Where are the major areas of language in the brain?

on the left hemisphere (considered the dominant one)

6

What happens if cerebral dominance isn't found in a person?

both sides fight for dominance in processing, often resulting in dysfluent speech like stuttering, or extensive word-retrieval problems

7

What is the area in the anterior side of the brain responsible for expressive language?

Broca's area

8

What is expressive language?

grammar, syntax, whether verbal or using signs, as well as speech production

9

What is the area in the more posterior side of the brain responsible for receptive language?

Wernicke's area

10

What is receptive language?

that which is involved with comprehension of sound

11

What role does the arcuate fasciculus play?

it is an "arch of fibres" that connect the two areas of the brain for (hopefully) smooth communication

12

All apes, chimpanzees and even infants younger than 3 months cannot produce what?

a complete range of formant frequencies to produce speech

13

Man's ancestors evolved to produce speech by the descent of the ______ into the _______ _________ allowing the _____ to occupy a higher and more forward position

larynx
vocal tract
tongue

14

What gained a wider range of motion in evolution for speech?

the jaw

15

What does the vocal tract lead to?

the trachea and the lungs

16

Why is it dangerous if there is an opening into the vocal tract for food, water, etc.?

increases the risk of food, water, and bacteria getting in, increasing the risk of choking and even aspiration pneumonia, causing death

17

What is dysphasia?

having a dysfunction of language

18

What is aphasia?

having a loss of language

19

What is the left side of the brain responsible for regarding speech sounds?

rapid processing, like "p" or "g"

20

What is the right side of the brain responsible for regarding speech?

slower processing, like "a" or "l"

21

What is the 2nd communication challenge? That of...

language comprehension

22

What is the third communication challenge? That of...

expressive language

23

What is the fourth communication challenge? That of...

voice production/resonance

24

What is the fifth communication challenge? That of...

fluency of speech production

25

What is the sixth communication challenge? That of...

communicative-cognitive skills/sogial pragmatics

26

What is the seventh communication challenge? That of...

pre-literacy and literacy skills (reading)

27

What group tends to have more communication challenges?

young boys

28

What do young boys have more prevalence for that is under an overall decline?

stuttering, stammering, or other speech problems

29

What increases the relative risk of children having specific language impairment by parent's level of education?

parental education less than high school is three-fold that of postsecondary parents

30

What is the problem with assuming language impairment is associated with parents' level of education?

it can also be involved with tobacco smoking, breast feeding, and/or other issues