Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (50)
What is speech and voice?
specific to sounds of the mouth used for communication
What happened in the evolution of the human vocal tract?
Babies' vocal tract is above their throat, preventing choking. As humans get older, their larynx descends into the vocal tract and lifts each time one swallows, etc.
What is a drawback to the evolution of the human vocal tract?
Airway protection has increased the risk of choking, and aspiration pneumonia
What is cerebral differentiation?
the separation of different structures for different purposes in the brain
Where are the major areas of language in the brain?
on the left hemisphere (considered the dominant one)
What happens if cerebral dominance isn't found in a person?
both sides fight for dominance in processing, often resulting in dysfluent speech like stuttering, or extensive word-retrieval problems
What is the area in the anterior side of the brain responsible for expressive language?
What is expressive language?
grammar, syntax, whether verbal or using signs, as well as speech production
What is the area in the more posterior side of the brain responsible for receptive language?
What is receptive language?
that which is involved with comprehension of sound
What role does the arcuate fasciculus play?
it is an "arch of fibres" that connect the two areas of the brain for (hopefully) smooth communication
All apes, chimpanzees and even infants younger than 3 months cannot produce what?
a complete range of formant frequencies to produce speech
Man's ancestors evolved to produce speech by the descent of the ______ into the _______ _________ allowing the _____ to occupy a higher and more forward position
What gained a wider range of motion in evolution for speech?
What does the vocal tract lead to?
the trachea and the lungs
Why is it dangerous if there is an opening into the vocal tract for food, water, etc.?
increases the risk of food, water, and bacteria getting in, increasing the risk of choking and even aspiration pneumonia, causing death
What is dysphasia?
having a dysfunction of language
What is aphasia?
having a loss of language
What is the left side of the brain responsible for regarding speech sounds?
rapid processing, like "p" or "g"
What is the right side of the brain responsible for regarding speech?
slower processing, like "a" or "l"
What is the 2nd communication challenge? That of...
What is the third communication challenge? That of...
What is the fourth communication challenge? That of...
What is the fifth communication challenge? That of...
fluency of speech production
What is the sixth communication challenge? That of...
communicative-cognitive skills/sogial pragmatics
What is the seventh communication challenge? That of...
pre-literacy and literacy skills (reading)
What group tends to have more communication challenges?
What do young boys have more prevalence for that is under an overall decline?
stuttering, stammering, or other speech problems
What increases the relative risk of children having specific language impairment by parent's level of education?
parental education less than high school is three-fold that of postsecondary parents