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Flashcards in Week 3 & 4 Deck (199)
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1

What is speech?

the motor production of speech sounds using the respiratory and vocal production systems in conjunction with the articulators in order to form words and sentences

2

What does speech account for?

most communication challenges

3

By what age do most people master complex coordination activity?

8 to 10 y.o.

4

The largest percentage of children with speech challenges are...

boys aged 3 - 8 years old

5

What integrity is required for speech development?

structural and functional integrity (hearing, oral structures, etc.)

6

How do you master articulation re rules?

establish and learn rules regarding distinctive features or phonological rules

7

What else do you require to master articulation?

time for maturation and learning and an accepting environment and a model to imitate

8

What is a phoneme?

a mental representation of a speech sound
e.g., /p/, /i/, etc.

9

What is a phone?

an actual production of speech sounds in various linguistic environments

10

What are allophones?

sounds which are perceived by the speakers of a given language to represent the same phoneme

11

What is phonology?

a system and rules by which the speech sounds are organized in any given language
e.g., ngot is not English, therefore different phonology

12

At what age are infants sensitive to distinctions in languages?

8 to 9 months

13

At what age do infants lose the ability to perceive distinctive features not meaningful in language of exposure?

at about 10 months of age

14

What precludes perceptual development of phonemes?

developing prototypes or boundaries for each phoneme in our language

15

What precludes perceptual development of phonemes? re rules

develop ruels governing the acceptable phonemic combinations within own language

16

What is another name for consonants?

pulmonics

17

What are the bilabial consonants?

p, b, m,

18

What are labiodental consonants?

f, v,

19

What are interdental consonants?

t, d

20

What are alveolar consonants?

t, d, n, r, r, l

21

What are liquids?

l, r

22

What are velar?

k, g, nnn

23

What are glottal?

?

24

What are the front vowels?

i e E ae a

25

What are the central vowels?

upside e,

26

What are the back kvowels?

u, o, backwards c, small a

27

What are the types of speech production challenges?

Functional articulation difficulties
Phonological difficulties
Dyspraxias
Dysarthrias
Structural damage e.g., cleft palate, other trauma to articulators

28

What is the f type of speech production challenges?

functional articulation difficulties
e.g., lisp can be associated with brain and tongue trust (infantile swallow)

29

What is the p type of speech production challenges?

continue to hear all sounds and not be able to discriminate them past 10 months (Wernicke's area)

30

What is the d1 type of speech production challenges?

cranial/nerve damage