Flashcards in Week 3 & 4 Deck (199)
What is speech?
the motor production of speech sounds using the respiratory and vocal production systems in conjunction with the articulators in order to form words and sentences
What does speech account for?
most communication challenges
By what age do most people master complex coordination activity?
8 to 10 y.o.
The largest percentage of children with speech challenges are...
boys aged 3 - 8 years old
What integrity is required for speech development?
structural and functional integrity (hearing, oral structures, etc.)
How do you master articulation re rules?
establish and learn rules regarding distinctive features or phonological rules
What else do you require to master articulation?
time for maturation and learning and an accepting environment and a model to imitate
What is a phoneme?
a mental representation of a speech sound
e.g., /p/, /i/, etc.
What is a phone?
an actual production of speech sounds in various linguistic environments
What are allophones?
sounds which are perceived by the speakers of a given language to represent the same phoneme
What is phonology?
a system and rules by which the speech sounds are organized in any given language
e.g., ngot is not English, therefore different phonology
At what age are infants sensitive to distinctions in languages?
8 to 9 months
At what age do infants lose the ability to perceive distinctive features not meaningful in language of exposure?
at about 10 months of age
What precludes perceptual development of phonemes?
developing prototypes or boundaries for each phoneme in our language
What precludes perceptual development of phonemes? re rules
develop ruels governing the acceptable phonemic combinations within own language
What is another name for consonants?
What are the bilabial consonants?
p, b, m,
What are labiodental consonants?
What are interdental consonants?
What are alveolar consonants?
t, d, n, r, r, l
What are liquids?
What are velar?
k, g, nnn
What are glottal?
What are the front vowels?
i e E ae a
What are the central vowels?
What are the back kvowels?
u, o, backwards c, small a
What are the types of speech production challenges?
Functional articulation difficulties
Structural damage e.g., cleft palate, other trauma to articulators
What is the f type of speech production challenges?
functional articulation difficulties
e.g., lisp can be associated with brain and tongue trust (infantile swallow)
What is the p type of speech production challenges?
continue to hear all sounds and not be able to discriminate them past 10 months (Wernicke's area)