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biomechanical model

focuses on problems that occur when person has limited musculoskeletal capacity leading to inability to generate and / or sustain the stability or movement needed to perform their occupation
limits= impairments


musculoskeletal capacity

Provides information about capacity of bones, joints and muscles
Based on principles of kinetics (cause of motion) and kinematics (describing movement) with meths of treatment use principles of physics eg. force, energy, gravity


concepts of the biomechanical model

joint range of motion


whats joint range of motion

amount of motion available at a joint
Measured in degrees
Each joint has different of motion in a given plane of motion
Motion can be active (client led) or passive (no effort from client)


what is strength

the ability of muscles to produce tension for maintain postural control and for moving body parts


what is degrees of strength

number and size of fibres that muscle belly


whats endurance

ability to sustain effort over the time required to do particular task
Length of ‘work time’ prior to fatigue


maintain of strength range of motion and endurance

participation in ADLS promotes maintenance of musculoskeletal system.


restoration of strength range of motion and endurance

aims to increase available motion, strength and endurance to build on what clients has and seeks to restore
Movement can be used to restore or improve motion, strength and endurance. Therapists engage clients in occupations/excerises that use movement
Gradually increased to build capacity


compensation of strength, ROM and endurance

compensatory treatment aims to bridge gap between the persons capacity for suability or motions and what is required in everyday occupation
Assistive devices attach to body
Modification of the environment


therapeutic intervention of decreased ROM

if due to tightness, strengthening activities may help
If due to oedema, compression, elevation
Splinting may help to prevent or treat a contracture


therapeutic intervention of weakness in muscle group

strength is developed by increasing stress on the muscle through resistance/weight, duration of resistance, rate/speed of movement and frequency of sessions


therapeutic intervention work hardening

individualised approach aimed at returning people to work
Main method used in physical reconditioning= used of simulated or real work tasks along with exercise
Using small goals that work toward the big goal of returning to work


what is work environment impact scale (WEIS)

semi structured interview and rating scale
Desired to gather info on how individuals with physical and psychosocial disabilities experience their work environments


whos the WEIS recommended for

people who are currently employed
People who are not currently working but are anticipating return to a specific job or type of work


WEIS rating form

Each item scored on a 4 point scale to indicate how the environmental factor impacts the workers performance, satisfaction, wellbeing (physical, social and emotional)
SS=strongly support
S= supports
I = interferes
SI= significantly interferes
NA= not applicable


AWP (Assessment of work performance

Assess san individual observable work related skills
Provides information on how efficiently and appropriately the person performs a work activity assess performance of motor, process and communication and communication and interaction skills within a work activity


AWP appropriate population

any person experiencing work related difficulties


Administration of AWP

Combined use with WRi/ WEIS will create more complete picture of a persons work functioning


what is Rhuematoid arthritis

autoimmune chronic inflamatory disease affecting joints


what are symptoms of RA

Symptoms: polyarticular pain and swelling, early morning stiffness, malaise and fatigue.
Also affects eyes, skin, lungs, heart, gastrointestinal system, kidneys, nervous system and blood


how to manage RA

aims to suppress inflammation rapidly to prevent or limit joint damage
Best to detect as soon as possible to help treat is
DMARD is disease modifying antirhematic drugs


what is osteoarthritis

most common form of arthritis
Joint pain linked with degenerative joint changes
Stiffness occurs after sleep or prolonged inactivity
Pain begins to occur in periods of activity but gradually becomes persistent and disturbs sleep


management for osteoarthritis

muscle strengthening exercises or aerobic exercise,antiflamatory drugs


describe soft tissue features of RA

Soft-tissue swelling and early erosions in the proximal interphalangeal joints in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis of the hands. If synovial proliferation is abundant, the resultant soft-tissue mass may have a doughy texture on palpation


mediacations available for someone with joint disease

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). These drugs can slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and save the joints and other tissues from permanent damage. Common DMARDs include:
methotrexate (Trexall, Otrexup, others): side affects abdominal pain, chills or ever, hair loss, headache,
leflunomide (Arava): side affects hair loss, headache, heart burn, high blood pressure
hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil): side affects blurry vission, headache, abdominal cramps, vomitng
sulfasalazine (Azulfidine).
- need regular blood tests to make sure the drug is not hurting blood cells or certain organs such as liver, lungs or kidneys


early symptoms of RA

joint stiffness
joint pain
minor joint swelling and mild inflammation


chronic symptoms of RA

wrist radial deviation
ulnar drift
swan neck defmority
right z thumb deformities


assessments that provide details on op issues for people with RA

pain diary
ADL assessment
home assessment
functional assessment


what is energy conservation

 Refers to the way activities/tasks/occupations are done to minimise muscle fatigue, joint stress, and pain
 Using your body efficiently and completing tasks in an efficient, sequential way in order to save your energy