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whats tetraplegia

function impairment of arm, trunk, legs (tetra=four)
- Motor and sensory impairment of cervical segments


whats quadriplegia

motor and sensory impairment of thoracic lumbar and sacral spinal segments


whats a complete injury

absence of sensory or motor function in the lowest sacral segments


whats an incomplete injury

only used when there is partial preservation of sensory or motor function below the neurological level and including the sacral segment


central cord syndrome

incomplete injury, centre of cord damage, more weakness in upper limbs than lower limbs


whats brown squared syndrome

half of cord damaged causing ipsilateral loss of proprioception (covered in sensory prac) and motor function: contralateral loss of pain and temperature.


whats anterior cord syndrome

front of cord damaged resulting in variable loss of motor and sensory function, preservation of proprioception


whats conus medullar is syndrome

damage to sacral cord and lumbar nerve roots, impaired bladder, bowel and lower limb function (results from falling from high place)


whats caudal equine syndrome

: lower motor neurone injury to lumbar sacral nerve roots, impaired bladder, bowel & lower limb function (results from falling from a high place)


whats secondary health conditions from spinal cord injuries

- Muscle spasm (spasticity)
- Joint and muscle pain
- Circulatory problems eg swelling, oedema, hypo/hypertension
- Chronic pain
- Bladder and bowel dysfunction
- Sexual dysfunction
- Temperature regulation dysfunction (can over heat easily)
- Fatigue
- Deep veins thrombosis
- Heterotopic ossification (connective tissue calcifies around the joint)
- respitaroy injection
*due to lack of movement


whats autonomic dysreflexia

- Happens to injuries at T6 or above
- Lack of autonomic system control
- If a person burns self, touches something sharp
- Leads to dangerously high blood pressure in response to noxious stimulus
- Can cause stroke or death
- Symptoms including pounding headache, flushed skin and sweating
- Requires immediate attention


whats postural hypotension

- Common people with high injury
- Dangerous low blood pressure as a result of going from lying down to upright too quickly
- Symptoms include light headaches, fainting, pallor (going white)
- Requires immediate attention


whats pressure sores

- Caused by constant pressure due to immobilisation
- Required pressure life/pressure relieving cushions/beds


whats spasticity and spasm

- Hyperactive stretch reflex
- Spasms trigger by sensory stimuli such as sudden touch, movement etc
- Can hinder function significantly
- Treated by medication


pain with spinal cord injuries?

- Most people with SCI suffer from some pain
- Mechanical (overuse of weak muscles, muscle imbalance)
- Neurological (dependent on where injury occurs difficult to control with medication)


psychosocial effects of spinal cord injury

- Depression and anxiety
- Loss of productivity roles
- Loss/change to leisure roles


whats social and community participation affects from spinal cord injurt

- Resources and environmental accessibility impact social participation
- Other people influence community engagement
- Heath issues affect social participation


whats barriers for psychosocial

- Health professionals help or hinder (over protective)
- More assistance needed for more severe injuries
- Social attitudes can impact
- Depression led to disengagement during transition home (going from the support systems at the hospital to own there on at home)
- Financial resources can demotivate (receiving payment therefore not having motivation to go back to work)
- Environments are inaccessible


facitiliations psychosocial effects of spinal cord injury

- Adequate financial resources (having enough to get resource and do activities)
- Social support from friends, family and from peer mentors
- The physical environment
- Appropriate transport
- Technology links people with cervical injuries to outside world
- Support is important but not being wrapped in cotton wool


define pressure ulcers

"lesion(s) caused by unrelieved pressure resulting in damage of underlying tissue"


how are ots involves in pressure care

Occupational therapists, with their expertise in positioning, seating and pressure management, are involved in both prevention and management of pressure ulcers


skeletal level

refers to the level of greatest. Vertebral dmage


function; area

: refers to the lowest segment at which strength of important muscles is graded a 3+ or above on the MMT and sensation is intact


when does a person need good and stable positioning

• Enabling communication
• Transport from one place to another
• Eating
• Access to technology
• Leisure
• Productive occupations
• Accessing powered mobility To name a few...


types of wheelchairs

Manual – self propelling, attendant propelled (looking at these today) (aluminium, titanium, carbon fibre)
Powered or motorised (looking at these next semester)


whats a self propelling wheelchair

• These types of wheelchairs are for people who can propel the device by themselves.


characteristics of self propelling wheelchairs

Tthe chairs have either
– a fixed or rigid frame
– or ‘folding frame’
• Big wheels at the rear, and small wheels at the front to enable the user to push the chair
• In general, fixed frame chairs are easier to push and more sturdy, but unable to fold, and folding chairs have more apparatus and are heavier to push, but more convenient for storage.
• *require good upper limb strength
• *can alter every component of wheelchair for the specific person.
• *no arm rests are for more active people


high performance wheelchairs

• Users with increased level of indoor and outdoor independence
• Standard equipment doesn’t meet lifestyle needs


attendent propelled wheelchair

• Used by people who are unable to push themselves, and include buggies or pushchairs for younger users, as well as wheelchairs that are purely for someone else to push.
• This type of chair tends to have small wheels at the back and the front, and is an essential back up if the person uses a powered wheelchair as their main form of independent mobility


special types of mobility systems

• Children’s wheelchairs and buggies
• High performance sports wheelchairs
• Bariatric wheelchairs
• Stand up wheelchairs
• Elevating wheelchairs