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what is dementia

syndrome in which there is disturbance of multiple higher cortical functions, including memory, thinking, orientation, comprehrenshion


most common types of dementia

- Alzhiemers disease
- Vascular dementia
- Dementia with Lewy bodies


risk factors for dementia

• Multiple transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) or strokes –for vascular type dementia
• Repeated head trauma (Alzheimer's disease & dementia related to Parkinson’s disease).
• Strong family history
• Prolonged hypertension
• Uncontrolled diabetes
• Atrial fibrillation


10 early indicators of dementia

difficulties with familiar activities
language problems
problems with spatial and temporal orientation
impaired capacity of judgemet
problems with abstract things
leaving things behind
mood swings and behavioural changes
personality changes
loss of initiative


other conditions that mimimic symptoms of dementia but can be treated

- Hypothyroidism
- Normal pressure hydrocephalus
- Syphilis
- Brain tumour
- Subdural haematoma
- Depression
- Side effects from prescribed or other drugs
- Delirium resulting from an acute illness


differences between demential and delirium

- People with Mild and moderate dementia usually are alert and can attend to questions and cognitive tests.
- People with Delirium are usually either hyper aroused or drowsy and easily distracted, clouding of consciousness


how is dementia diagnosed

- Family history
- Duration of symptoms
- Mini- mental state examination
- Neuroimaging: brain CT or EEG scan- exclude stroke, tumors, subdural, determine atrophy
- MRI- Magnetic reasonce imagery demonstrates pathological or other physiologiaal alterations of living tissues to rule out vasculitis
- PET- position emission tomography
- Blood test (rule out reversible causes eg infections


whats the most common for of dementia

alzhiemers disease


what is alzheimers disease

- Plaques and tangles develop in the brain, leading to death of brain cells.
- Shortage of some important chemicals in the brain that transmit messages
- Is a progressive disease


how many stages are there of dementia

early stage
moderate or mid state
sever or late stage


whats early stage of dementia

- Impaired mental ability, mood swings
- May lose interest in activates
- May show poor judgement
- Blame others for stealing lost items
- May get more irritable
- May repeat themselves or lose thread of conversation


whats moderate/mid stage of dementia

- Behavioural disturbances usually increasingly develop ◦ Be confused in time and place
- Forget names of family members
- Leave saucepans and kettles on stove, leave gas on
- Wander the streets, maybe at night
- Behave inappropriately (hide possessions, wear
- inappropriate clothes)
- Become very repetitive
- Neglectful of hygiene or eating
- Become angry, upset or distressed. Easily frustrated


whats severe/ late stage of dementia

- Various other body functions such as swallowing and the excretion process
- Loss of independence in managing everyday life eg cant remember having eaten
- Altered perception and social relationships eg no recognition of family and friends, restless, fail to recognise familiar items
- Dependent on care eg bathing, toileting, dressing
- Physical problems eg falls prevention


care/family member issues of people with dementia

- Exhaustion
- Sadness/ grief
- Confusion (whats going on)
- Isolation and loneliness
- Role change
- Fear of future
- Mental health issues (depression


occupational therapy assessment for dementia

- Cognitive screens/assessments: eg MMSE, Cognistat
- Assessment of motor and process skills (AMPS)
- Personal activities of daily living (PADLS)
- Domestic activates of Daily living
- Driving assessment


whats a carer

: a person who through family relationships or friendships, looks after a frail older person or someone with a disability or ongoing health condition.


whats carer payment

- Provides financial support to people who are unable to work due to full time daily care of someone with severe disability/medical condition/frial aged.
- Fortnightly payment $700, career can work 25 hours per week including transport.
- Will also receive career allowance


whats carer allowance

- fortnightly income supplement for parents or carers providing additional daily care and attention to an adult or dependent child with disability or a medical condition, or to someone who is frail aged.
- Can work with care allowance, not taxed, $130 per fort night
- Has no impact on ability to work


direct taskes of carers

- Assistant in home, community education setting for all ADL
health/ medical care
- Transport
- Support
- Surveillance for safer or to manage risk
- Can happen night or day


indirect tasks of carers

- Participation responsibilities for persons skill development and maintain/ improve health
- Advocacy- service advocacy
- Organising the service system around care recipient
- Managing people within those service systems eg explaining to people at the supermarket why someone is acting in a particular wat
- Financial responsibility eg pension
- Coordinating and meeting the needs of other family members as influenced by disability/person


what is cognition

thinking, remembering, reasoning, decision making and making sense of the world


whats structural capacity

persons limits in processing info, skills, challenges


whats personal context

personality, coping style, values, motivation, emotions


whats self awareness

gives an indication to level of insight into their situation whether they know their strengths and weaknesses or not


whats processing strategies

: behaviour that effects on performance: memory, problem solving skills, attention.


whats examples of higher level process

executive funciton


whats examples of basic cognitive functions

- Attention
- Concentration
- Memory
- Perception
- Visual attention and scanning
- Thinking (categorising, sequencing


what can impact cogniton

language, culture and educaiton


whats the difference between a cognitive screen vs cognitive assessment

Screen: to identify if general cognitive issues exists
Assessment: to find out specific problem areas so can plan intervention


what are 5 cognitive screening tools

- Clock drawing test