Flashcards in week 2 Deck (43)
acquired brain injury
permanent change in brain structure and function the is caused primarily by sources such as diffuse axonal injury or laceration; or a secondary source such as haemorrhage or infection. Damage may be focal or diffuse
causes of acquired brain injury
Traumatic causes such as mechanical crush, hit/blow, shaken as a baby (most common form)
Non traumatic causes: stroke, brain tumours, hydrocephalus, epilepsy, hypoxia due to events such as near drowning, infection, severe asthma and drug abuse.
effects ABI has
early day of coma/ post traumatic amnesia
Person may have other medical complications resulting from the accident that delay rehab eg pneumonia
Must understand family/social situation
May result in diverse movement challenges
May cause disorders of perception, cognition, vision, sensation, motor control and equilibrium
what is motor control
is the ability to regulate or direct the mechanisms essential to movement
whats cortical damage areas equal
damage to subcritical areas equal
affect quality of movement
secondary problems of ABI
inability to perform tasks
Lack of exercise
cerebellar lesions leads to
Axil: wide based gate, poorly controlled movement, intention tremor
Hypotonia: low tone
Dysmetria: target accuracy
Disdiadokokinesia: poorly coordinated rapid alternating movement
Disequibrium: reduced balanc
basil ganglia sessions lead to
Akinesia: difficulty initiating voluntary movment
Bradykinesia: slowness in carrying out movements
Dystonia including fidgety
Ballistic movement: sudden or violent movement
what is spasticity
an abnormal increase in muscle tone or stiffness of muscle, which might interfere with movement, speech, or be associated with discomfort or pain
a type of spasticity
shortening of soft tissues that result in reduced joint range of motion due to impairments eg weakness or spasticity.
whats muscle tone
the resistance of a muscle to passive elongation or stretching
an abnoramally high level of muscle tone or tension
increases tone which is more than normal resistance of muscle to passive elongation increased resistance against passive stretch.
classifying CNS symptoms
Positive symptoms: (too much of something)
Spasticity (increasing muscle strength improves)
Hyperactive stretch reflectors
Negative symptoms (loss of normal behaviours
Specific assessments for ABI
modified ash worth scale
management of spasticity
-Botulinum Toxin A in addition to rehabilitation therapy may be used to reduce spasticity, but is unlikely to improve activity or motor function.
electrical stimulation, casting and taping, may be used.
**DO NOT RECOMEND TO STRETCH
management of contracture
active motor training or electrical stimulation to elicit muscle activity should be provided.
** routine use of splints or prolonged positioning of upper or lower limb muscles in a lengthened position (stretch) is NOT recommended.
traumatic brain injury, traumatically induced structural injury and or psychological disruption of brain function as a result of an extrenal force.
whats Glascow Coma scale
most common system used to decreed level of consciousness in a person following TBI
Used to help gauge the severity of an acute brain injury
Test is simple, reliable and correlates well wth outcome following severe brain injury
how to interpret Glasco scores
Severe: GCS 8 or less
Moderate: GCS 9-12
mild: GCS 13-15
post traumatic assessment scale
rates Post traumatic amneisa inclues symtpoms:disorientation and confusion about location, time and identity of others
Highly distractactable and disinhibited
Difficulty with thinking, memory and concentration
Anxiety, agitation and rapid changes in mood.
how to interpret PTA scale
PTA less than 5 minutes = "very mild injury" PTA between 5-60 minutes = "mild injury" PTA between 1-24 hours = "moderate injury" PTA between 1-7 days = "severe injury" PTA greater than 7 days = "very severe injury
whats post traumatic amnesia
inability to remember day to day events after brain injury including those immediately before the injury and events that ooccur after the injury.
problems with speech for ABI
nability to remember day to day events after brain injury including those immediately before the injury and events that ooccur after the injury.
executive functioning problems
Organizing, planning and prioritizing
Starting tasks and staying focused on them to completion
Understanding different points of view
Self-monitoring (keeping track of what you’re doing)
signs and symptoms of epilepsy
A staring spell.
Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs.
Loss of consciousness or awareness.
Psychic symptoms such as fear, anxiety
medication for epilepsy
Treatment is usually with antiepileptic drugs also referred to as AEDs. Many epilepsy syndromes respond well to a specific drug or to a combination of drugs. Drugs do not cure epilepsy but most seizures can be prevented by taking medication regularly one or more times a day
functions of the frontal lobe
understanding and reacting to others feelings, forming personality, managing attention, problem solving, judgment, memory, motor control