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acquired brain injury

permanent change in brain structure and function the is caused primarily by sources such as diffuse axonal injury or laceration; or a secondary source such as haemorrhage or infection. Damage may be focal or diffuse


causes of acquired brain injury

Traumatic causes such as mechanical crush, hit/blow, shaken as a baby (most common form)
Non traumatic causes: stroke, brain tumours, hydrocephalus, epilepsy, hypoxia due to events such as near drowning, infection, severe asthma and drug abuse.


effects ABI has

early day of coma/ post traumatic amnesia
Person may have other medical complications resulting from the accident that delay rehab eg pneumonia
Must understand family/social situation
May result in diverse movement challenges
May cause disorders of perception, cognition, vision, sensation, motor control and equilibrium


what is motor control

is the ability to regulate or direct the mechanisms essential to movement


whats cortical damage areas equal

tonal changes


damage to subcritical areas equal

affect quality of movement


secondary problems of ABI

inability to perform tasks
Lack of exercise
Social isolation


cerebellar lesions leads to

Axil: wide based gate, poorly controlled movement, intention tremor
Hypotonia: low tone
Dysmetria: target accuracy
Disdiadokokinesia: poorly coordinated rapid alternating movement
Disequibrium: reduced balanc


basil ganglia sessions lead to

Akinesia: difficulty initiating voluntary movment
Bradykinesia: slowness in carrying out movements
Resting tremor
Dystonia including fidgety
Choreiform movement
Ballistic movement: sudden or violent movement


what is spasticity

an abnormal increase in muscle tone or stiffness of muscle, which might interfere with movement, speech, or be associated with discomfort or pain


whats contracture

a type of spasticity
shortening of soft tissues that result in reduced joint range of motion due to impairments eg weakness or spasticity.


whats muscle tone

the resistance of a muscle to passive elongation or stretching


whats hypertonia

an abnoramally high level of muscle tone or tension


whats hypertonicity

increases tone which is more than normal resistance of muscle to passive elongation increased resistance against passive stretch.


classifying CNS symptoms

Positive symptoms: (too much of something)
abnormal reflexes
Spasticity (increasing muscle strength improves)
Hyperactive stretch reflectors
Negative symptoms (loss of normal behaviours
Abnormal coordination


Specific assessments for ABI

modified ash worth scale
Tarduie scale


management of spasticity

-Botulinum Toxin A in addition to rehabilitation therapy may be used to reduce spasticity, but is unlikely to improve activity or motor function.
electrical stimulation, casting and taping, may be used.


management of contracture

active motor training or electrical stimulation to elicit muscle activity should be provided.
** routine use of splints or prolonged positioning of upper or lower limb muscles in a lengthened position (stretch) is NOT recommended.


whats TBI

traumatic brain injury, traumatically induced structural injury and or psychological disruption of brain function as a result of an extrenal force.


whats Glascow Coma scale

most common system used to decreed level of consciousness in a person following TBI
Used to help gauge the severity of an acute brain injury
Test is simple, reliable and correlates well wth outcome following severe brain injury


how to interpret Glasco scores

Severe: GCS 8 or less
Moderate: GCS 9-12
mild: GCS 13-15


post traumatic assessment scale

rates Post traumatic amneisa inclues symtpoms:disorientation and confusion about location, time and identity of others
 Highly distractactable and disinhibited
 Difficulty with thinking, memory and concentration
 Anxiety, agitation and rapid changes in mood.


how to interpret PTA scale

PTA less than 5 minutes = "very mild injury" PTA between 5-60 minutes = "mild injury" PTA between 1-24 hours = "moderate injury" PTA between 1-7 days = "severe injury" PTA greater than 7 days = "very severe injury


whats post traumatic amnesia

inability to remember day to day events after brain injury including those immediately before the injury and events that ooccur after the injury.


problems with speech for ABI

nability to remember day to day events after brain injury including those immediately before the injury and events that ooccur after the injury.


executive functioning problems

problems with:
Paying attention
Organizing, planning and prioritizing
Starting tasks and staying focused on them to completion
Understanding different points of view
Regulating emotions
Self-monitoring (keeping track of what you’re doing)


signs and symptoms of epilepsy

Temporary confusion.
A staring spell.
Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs.
Loss of consciousness or awareness.
Psychic symptoms such as fear, anxiety


medication for epilepsy

Treatment is usually with antiepileptic drugs also referred to as AEDs. Many epilepsy syndromes respond well to a specific drug or to a combination of drugs. Drugs do not cure epilepsy but most seizures can be prevented by taking medication regularly one or more times a day


functions of the frontal lobe

understanding and reacting to others feelings, forming personality, managing attention, problem solving, judgment, memory, motor control


brain injury to fontal lobe

change in social behaviour, change in personality, increased irritability, which may include a change in mood and an inability to regulate behaviour.