Week 1- PVD and HTN Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 1- PVD and HTN Deck (32):
1

Differentiate Essential VS Secondary HTN

Essential there's no cause
Secondary there is a cause

2

List several causes of 2nd HTN

1.Renal Artery Stenosis
2. Hyperthyroidism
3.Sleep Apnea
4. Obesity
5. NSAIDS
6. hyperaldosteronism
7. phemochromocytoma

3

Symptoms of HTN

LVH, retinopathy, nephropathy, microalbumin in UA, PAD, stroke, CKD

4

Goals for hypertensive therapy for patients greater than 60 without comorbidity?

150/90

5

Define Type I and Type II Hypertension

Type I > 140/90
Type 2 > 160/100

6

First Choice Drug with NO comorbidities

Thiazide Diruretic

7

HTN: First Choice for black

CCB and/or HCTZ

8

HTN: First Choice with CKD

ACE

9

HTN: First Choice with DM

ACE

10

HTN: First Choice with Stroke

HCTZ + ACE

11

HTN: First Choice with CHF/ CAD

ACE + BB

12

HTN: In clinic drug for high B/P

Clonidine

13

HTN: Thiazide Diuretic: Name

HCTZ- 12.5 QD --> ;25 BiD
Caution: Gout, hyponatremia
Also helps decrease bone demineralization

14

HTN: Beta Blocker

Metoprolol 50 mg 1-2 per day

15

HTN: ACE

Lisinopril 10 mg QD
Contraindicated in Pregnancy, Renal Artery Stenosis, may cause hyperkalemia

16

HTN: Dihydropyridines VS Non-dihydro

Dihydro: Amlodipine 2.5 QD
Can cause peripheral edema
Nondihydro- verapamil, diltiazem

Dikes spike the heart rate

17

What do you suspect when on lots of meds or HTN doesn't meet the patient's typical profile?

Renal Ultrasound for Renal Artery Stenosis

18

Five P's of PVD

Pain, Pulselessness, palor, parathesia, paralysis

19

ABI Normal, impaired, and severe

Ankle / Brachial
> 1 normal
.9 Obstructive lesion
.5 or less- severe disease

20

Postural Color Change of Chronic Arterial Insufficiency

Pinkness in 10 sec = normal
> 15 seconds impaired

21

Differential Diagnosis for PAD

chronic venous insufficiency, throbosis, phelbitis, polycythemia, anemia, Raynaud's vasculitis, merger's disease, aneurysms, and peripheral neuropathy

22

Treatment for PAD

Main: walking and exercise- most effective
Smoking cessation
Angioplasty, stents, grafts

23

Medications for PAD

Don't necessarily help the PAD, but are more for associated CAD.
ASA first, then Plavix

24

Differential Diagnosis of DVT

Strained muscle, cellulitis, lymphedema, baker's cyst

25

Causes of DVT

Estrogen therapy, immobilization

26

Treatment for DVT

Good Kidneys- Lovenox, 1 mg/kg Q12 hours
If kidneys are bad, admit to hospital for heparin

27

First step in low/interm possibility of DVT

D. Dimer

28

First step in high possibility DVT

Ultrasound

29

What do you do if ultrasound is negative for DVT, but d-dimer was positive?

Redo ultrasound in a week

30

Define postural blood pressure change.

BP change by >10 mmHg

31

What is resistant HTN and Treatment?

DBP>100 with 4 medications, also add aldosterone and refer

32

What line of therapy is a beta blocker?

One of the last lines.
First lines: ACE/ARB, HCTZ, CCB