book & VL: Name the three components of employee development
- training 2. performance appraisal 3. career development
book & VL:
What is the difference between employee training and employee development
Both: develop knowledge, skills & attitudes Employee
Training: train to perform a given task or job successfuly. Final goal is IMPROVING performance in the current job and thus improvement of the organisation’s performance. VL: and guide career development
Employee Development: what is developed is assessed to be NECESSARY for the performance of their NEW or future responsiblities. VL: Should result in employee fullfillment.
book: What is Human Resource Development (HRD)?
Integrated system of training, development and organisational development aimed at developing employees’ full potential in order to ensure individual, group and organisational effectiveness in emerging situations, irrespective of the possibility of their immediate use in the current job. —————————————- The ideal, to develop capabilities in employees as meants to increase work satisfaction, motivation AND meet emerging requirements of the organisation. –> Development of employees full potential irrespective of the possiblity of their immediate use in their current job
book: What is the difference between Training and Education?
Education is much proader, aimed at developing an individual’s full potential by imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes that would enable the person to manage his or her own life in ermerging situations.
book: Name the three training paradigms
- traditional paradigm 2. HRD paradigm 3. learning paradigm
book: What is the learning paradigm?
One step further than the HRD paradigm. Empowers the employee to set an d implement their own learning agenda within the framework of organisational goals, vlaues and resource contraints. Underlying philosophy: learning most effective when initiated by learners themselves.
Name two different purposes of trainings according to their purpose
- Induction Training
- Improvement Training
What is an induction training?
orientation provided to new recruits in order to introduce them to the organisaion’s history, culture, goals, policies…
Which two types of improvement trainings can be distinguished from each other?
- to mitigate identified KSAO deficiencies;
- to prepare the employee for new job responsibilities and requirements
Induction trainings are usually conducted in two parts.
In which two parts?
- Organisational orientation (by HRM)
- Departmental and Job orientation (by department head and immediate supervisor)
What stands ISD for?
Instructional Systems Design
Which are the four phases of ISD?
- needs assessment
- design and development of training programs
- delivery of training
- evaluation of training
Which three levels are covered by the Training Needs Assessment (TNA)
TNA is done including formal and informal methods: interviews, questionnaires, observations, focus group, …
Which four levels of evaluation does Kirkpatrick (1983, 1994) propose?
- Reaction (smiley sheet)
What is the most often used design for Training evaluation and which would be the best one?
- single group post-test only design
- pre-test post-test control group design
Which two costs of a training can be distinguished?
- fixed cost / one-time costs (development of design)
- variable or recurring costs (trainer cost, travel, …)
Name the three stages of learning for ‘consistent tasks’
- acquisition of declarative knowledge
* *knowing the facts**
- grouping of facts
* *knowledge compilation**
- acquisition of procedural knoledge
* *knowing how**
Training methods can be divided in on- and off-the job training. In which subcategories can the off-the-job training be devided?
- information presentation methods
- simulation methods
Which three forms of training can be distinguished (delivery wise)?
- Team training
- Executive Coaching
Which two training methods can be distinguished?
* presentation & simulation methods*
Name four format characteristics important in trainings
- individual or group
- distributed or massed practice (time spaced or all in one)
- transfer of training
- maintenance of training
Learning principles and training methods:
training methods should promote learning at three different levels
- cognitive (understanding)
- affective (passion)
- behavioural (opportunities for practice)
Name one definition of career
- The totality of work one does in a lifetime (Sears, 1982)
- Career = work + leisure (McDaniels, 1989)
- Isaacson and Brown (2000) “a series of paid or unpaid occupations or jobs that one holds throughout his or her life”
- Collin and Young (2000) “the engagement of the individual with society through involvement in the organisation of work” (p.276).
- Savickas (2002) preferred the Oxford English Dictionary definition of “A person’s course or progress through life” (p.382).
- “to move swiftly and in an uncontrolled way in a specified direction” might more aptly describe careers in today’s world of work (Compact Oxford English Dictionary, 2004)
Protean Career Model
earliest proponent was Hall (1976, 2002)
- individual takes responsiblity for their career
- career as life-long process
- incorporates aspect of whole life
- development takes many form + is self-directed
- organisations support but do not drive career
Compare Protean Career Model with the Traditinal Career
What is a boundaryless career?
A person with a boundaryless career mindset “navigates the changing work landscape by enacting a career characterized by different levels of physical and psychological movement” Sullivan and Arthur (2006)
Some key points of boundaryless career
- Earliest proponents Arthur (1994)
- Career paths not limited to a single organisation but may cross many
- Employment relationships transactional and insecure
- Emphasis on adaptability, skill and knowledge development to promote marketability
- Influence of social networks? Socio-economic status?
Are people good judges of their own strength?
only moderate support for the relationship!!
Matching Models assume Self-Knowledge.
Name three matching models
- Career Information Processing Model
* Peterson, Sampson, Reardon*
- Life Span, Life Space
- RIASEC Model
Why use self-estimates if only moderate relationship with strenghts?
“self-estimates provide a way to make career-relevant self concepts evident to the counsellor and counselee and thus, open for discussion, clarification and application” (p.202)
Designing career interventions What works (Brown et al. 2003)?
- Using workbooks and written exercises
- Individualized interpretations and feedback
- In-session occupational information exploration
- Attention to building support
What are the axes of RIASEC (Holland)?
What are the different characteristics?
career happen across different points the life-cycle. these models super one of the best known name. he sayss important t oconsider, that a person had different roles across their lifes. and across the contnuum u can see this different roles.
start to think, what does it mean. dangerous, can lead to stereotypes, as we eg expect somebody to retire at 60, because he is at this stage…
Name the four stages of the life cycle model.
- Exploration: identifying skills and jobs that fit
- Establishment: growth and development
- Maintenance: Update skills and hold on to accomplishments
- Disengagement: Phasing out of work