Name two different kinds of Leadership
Transformational and Transactional
Name the four different kind of Leadership Styles and their Synonyms as proposed by Black, 1990.
-> with the acronym MIND, reflecting which different types of leaders are needed in different types of changes / challenges
♦ Meditative / Planning Leader
♦ Intuitive / Charismatic Leader
♦ Negotiative / Political Leader
♦ Directive Leader / Bureaucratic Leader
also Planning Leader
new goals: systematic analysis
implementaton: rationally choose people with right qualification and experience
also Charismatic Leader
new goals: own holistic perception, gut feeling
implementaton: committted followers
also Bureaucratical Leader
new goals: existing/ given by boss
implementaton: enforcement of rules and procedures
also Political Leader
new goals: Consensus
implementaton: partitioned allocatoins of work and benefits among followrs
ability to influence others towards the accomplishment of common objectives without using formal authority
requires the use of formal authority and/or persuasion to ensure contributions from other organisational members
What is transactional leadership?
ability to influence employees towards more effective performance of their current objectives
–appeal to employees’ lower order needs
Define Transformational leadership:
ability to influence employees towards goal accomplishment and acceptance of new value systems
–appeal to employees’ higher order needs
Name the centralised vs. distributed leadershipy form
* =* centralised leadership. associated with positions and based on formal authority, hierarchy and centralised resources.
* leadership abailable at different levels of an organisation, operated through informal networks and a fluid and flexible heirarchy with many power centres. Also known as distributed leadership.*
Name the transformational leadership attributes
–encourage independent thought & innovation
−show concern for individual employees
−encourage employees to _challenge th_emselves
−command loyalty and devotion from followers
Name the three theoretical approaches of leadership
−“great person theory”
−focuses on the personality traits of the leader
−focuses on the leader’s style of functioning
•Contingency (situational) approach:
−focuses on the interaction of traits/skills/styles and the situation
behavioural definition leadership style:
based on the extent to which the leader exercises authority over subordinates
Name the four studies on behavioural leadership approaches
1. Iowa leadership study
2. Ohio State leadership study
3. Michigan leadership study
4. Role theory-based studies
What was the Iowa leadership study about?
− found that leaders behavioural style influnce performance & satisfaction
−leader styles (autocratic vs. democratic)
−> quantity the same in auto & democratic, but quality & satisfaction higher under democratic leaders
What was the Ohio Leadership study about?
– identify dimensions of leader by study the perception of follower
–> used the questionnaires: LBDQ & LOQ
LBDQ = Leadership Behaviour Description Q
LOQ = Leader Opinion Q
- two dimensions of leadership behaviour:
initiating structure (task orientation)
consideration (people orientation)
–follower + leader perception is important
What are the Michigan Studies about?
-> results also based on responses from subordinates with day-to-day transactions
2 leadership styles:
What are the role theory-based studies about?
leaders adopt different behaviours on the basis of different roles.
What is the situational approach of leadership about?
focuses on the person-environment interaction:
−task being performed
−characteristics of the organisation
-> often defined in terms of the employees.
Name the thousand different approaches in situational leadership….
- Fiedler’s contingency model
- Situational leadership theory (Hersey & Blanchard)
- Path‒goal theory (House et al.)
- Normative model of decision-making (Vroom, Yetton & Jago)
- Leader–member exchange (LMX) model (Graen et al.)
- Cross-cultural Leadership Theories
•Misumi & Peterson
•Ayman & Chemers
•Broadbeck et al (2000)
Name outcome oriented leadership approaches
- Model of the moral leader (Burns)
- Traits model of transformational leadership (Bennis & Nanus):
Explain all about Fiedler’s contingency model
(comm’on I know you waaaaant tooooo)
To identify leader’s style; scale to measure leader’s attitude towards least preferred co-worker.
- > lenient (mild) rating: relationship-oriented
- > harsh rating: task oriented
3 variables to evaluate favorableness of situation for leader:
+ leader-member relation
+ Task structure
+ position power
-> very favourable / very unfavourable: task-orientated (autocratic)
-> moderatly un/favourable; people-orientated (democratic)
Explain the deal about the
situational leadership theory of Hersey and Blanchard
——-> go girl
directing: low competence, low commitment
coaching: some competence, some commitment
supporting: high competence, variable commitment
delegating / empowering: high competence & high commitment
Please elaborate on the
path-goal theory of House et al.
3 dimenstion; leader, situation and motivation
to influence performance must identify goals that are attractive to followers and show them the path towards achieving them.
4 leaderships styles:
- –directive: emphasis on tasks and rules
- *–supportive**: emphasis on relationship with followers
- *–participative**: emphasis on participative goal-setting
- –achievement-orientated:** emphasis on setting challenging goals
essence: leader engage in behaviours that complement subordinate’s environment, abilities
Leader effectiveness depends on the situation:
Elaborate on normative decision styles model of Vroom
normative: model based on rational analysis rather than empirical finding.
- 7 different styles of decision-making
–autocratic: leader makes decisions without involving subordinates (A-I) or after seeking information from selected subordinates (A-II)
–consultative: leader makes decisions after consulting each subordinate (C-I) or after consulting subordinates collectively (C-II)
–group: leader discusses and makes decisions with subordinates’ representatives (G-I); leader defines the decision-making parameters for the group (G-II)
–delegative: leader delegates all decisions (D-I)
- Quality requirement: is it important
- Commitment requirement
- Leader information: has leader sufficient info
- strucuring of the problem
- Commitment probabilityy
- Goal congruence
- conflict amon subordinates
- subordinates information
Tell me more about the
leader-member exchange (LMX) model of Graen et al.
leader create a vertical dyad linkage with each subordinates.
Leads to in- and out-group
the development of in- and out-group happens by the following processes:
- role.taking (initiating a relationshop)
- role-making (testing and developing trust)
- role routinisation (stabilising the pattern)
in-group: more participative, consultative
out-group: more directive
not integrated: studies of the cross-cultural, and in book: GLOBE project.
the GLOBE different cultural
Burns model of the moral leader
leadership is about moral values dealing with collectively desirable ends (transformational) or the means to achieve such ends (transactional).
Psychic power wielders are to be distinguished from real leader.
Real leader can be devided in
- *- transactional:** concerned about means
- honesty, responsibility, fairness*
- *- transformational:** concerned about ends
- collective wellbeing, liberty, justice*
Traits model of transformational leadership (Bennis & Nanus):
new set of leader traits: