is the process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people.
What are the functions of effective communication in organisations?
- Developing and maintaining organisational culture
- Building social supports and bonds.
- Facilitating knowledge management.
- Enhancing high quality decisions and the provision of information.
Name the model of communication (based on Stuart Hall)
Sender: makes piece of info into a message and encodes it into words, gestures, voice intonations, …
encoded message is transmitted in the context or medium
receiver decodes the message.
Noise = anything that interferes with expression or understanding of the message
In which case is face-to-face communication better and in which case written communication?
When we want to convey emotion or need to use persuasion,
•This is due to voice intonation, silence and the emotional tone of the conversation.
- *Written communication**:
- when details are required.*
How has Email impacted on organisations
Positive outcomes include:
•Speed of communication has increased
• can be edited / stored
• coordinate timing
• reduces many selective attention biases
•Empowering to share information.
Negative outcomes include:
•Face-to-face interactions have decreased;
•It is difficult to convey the correct emotional tone;
•Many unnecessary messages are received.
What are the five major elements of non-verbal communication?
The five major elements are:
- Personal space;
- Facial expression;
- Eye contact;
- Body language;
What are three major cross-cultural differnces in verbal communication?
1. Direct and indirect styles:
•Direct = explicit messages.
•Indirect = selection of words to hide feelings.
2. Personal versus the contextual style:
•Personal = focus on the speaker.
•Contextual = role of the speaker.
3. Instrumental versus affective style:
•Instrumental = goal orientated language.
•Affective = process orientated and receiver focused.
What are three major cross-cultural differnces in non-verbal communication?
- Non-verbal more important in some cultures than others
- Gestures have different meaning around the world.
Name the common forms of downwards communication
- Instructions about job performance;
- Information on policies/procedures;
- Feedback on job performance;
- Information on task coordination
Which other communications types exists in a company besides downward communication?
Upward internal communication:
•Means of making both suggestions and complaints
•Leads to increased job satisfaction
Lateral or horizontal communication:
•Increases cooperation and coordination
•Means of sharing news and information
•Helps to develop and maintain interpersonal relationships
Informal internal communication:
Name four common communication barriers
Differing mental models.
•Deleting or delaying negative information.
•When both the sender and receiver don’t share a common understanding of the words/symbols used.
•When the volume of information exceeds the person’s capacity to process it.
Organisational Communication and Work Outcomes
- Employee satisfaction is enhanced by the frequency and quality of face-to-face interactions with supervisors.
- Downward communication increases employee commitment.
- The communication within a team is particularly important, with productivity increased when there is downward communication.
Which are the three steps in listening?
- Sensing: receiving signals and paying attention to them
- Evaluation: decoding and understanding the message
- Responding: motivates and directs future communication
What is empathic listening?
- Being able to put yourself in another’s place and see and hear from that person’s perspective.
- Becoming aware of the speakers experience and feelings.
- Setting a safe, comfortable climate for communication to encourage expression.
- Recognising differences and, or probing to discover underlying emotions.