What are possible issues of team-based structures?
–teams do not always result in greater organisational performance
–people management issues
–process management issues
What are the benefits of team-based structures?
–improvements to product & service quality
–lower absenteeism & turnover
–higher levels of wellbeing & job satisfaction
What are people management signs of failure of team-work?
–lack of top management support
–weak project manager
–no stakeholder participation
–lack of essential KSAOs
–insufficient time allocation for project completion
what are process management signs of failure?
–lack of documentation of success criteria
–ineffective project change management
–project milestones/due dates not specified
–inadequate resource allocation
–communication breakdown among stakeholders
What does team effectiveness & performance requires?
–clearly defined processes
Explain about the model of team effectiveness:
- teamwork processes
- team effectiveness
Team performance & Wellbeing, Satisfaction
Team cohesion, team potency, team mental models
Name the team defining processes
planning stage before beginning the work:
–aim, values, activities
•strategy formulation and planning
–plan to achieve desired goals/state
–consistent with mission and strategy
–specific to team objectives
–reasonable to achieve
3-5 goals have been shown to be best
Which team work processes are included in monitoring?
•amount of effort expended:
–commitment; goal achievement
–goal-setting key milestones, error identification; corrective actions; team alignment
•level of knowledge and skill applied:
–training and support needs
Name the team processes involved in interpersonal team processes
–leadership; communication; training
–team climate (trust); communication; decision-making involvement
•affect (emotion) management:
Which team sizes are best?
small (3-5) and intermediate (5-7)
as compared to large (8-15)
when do we have emergent states as a result of teamwork?
•induced psychological states
•positive impact on team performance
•reached only when the team has worked together for a long time
What is team cohesion?
•an emotional bond that develops among members as they work together as a team.
–shared goal commitment
–sense of team importance
•downside of cohesion: groupthink
What are the 8 signs of groputhink?
i. illusions of invulnerability
ii. unquestioned belief in the morality of the group
vi. illusions of unanimity
vii. direct pressure to conform
What causes group-think?
−insulation of the group
−lack of impartial leadership
−lack of procedural norms
−stressful external threats
−excessive difficulties in decision-making
How can group think be pre vented?
−assign each member the role of “critical evaluator”
−leaders shouldn’t express an opinion when assigning tasks
−leaders should be absent from many group meetings to avoid influencing the outcome
−set up several independent groups to work on the same problem
−examine all effective alternatives
−members should discuss the group’s ideas with trusted people and experts outside of the group
−invite outside experts into meetings
−assign at least one group member the role of Devil’s advocateand alternate the member each meeting
What is meant by mental models?
•shared understandings among team members
–team tasks, goals, roles, KSAOs
•improve team coordination
•improve error detection
What is team potency?
whether members believe that they can be effective as a team across tasks or contexts
•differs from self-efficacy
•differs from team efficacy (belief about competency to perform a given task)
Requisites: member confidence in:
Name the three types of teams covered in the lecture
Definition of self-managing teams
groups of interdependentindividuals who can self-regulatetheir behaviour on relatively whole tasks
Why self-directed teams may fail:
–significant culture change does not accompany their introduction
–management refuses to change its management style
–team leaders not given adequate training
–cross-cultural issues not managed
How can one ensure the success of self-managing teams?
–feedback on results
–high level of employee involvement
–group (KSAO) composition
What are the virtual team best practices?
–sharing personal information
–sharing information about day-to-day activities
–sharing essential knowledge
–encouraging face-to-face meetings
–building a strong team identity
–providing easy access to/support for videoconferencing and online spaces
Virtual team critical success factors:
–appropriate reward structures
–formal technology training
–implementing organisational processes
–agreeing on norms and communication protocols
–ensuring task‒technology fit
–strong team leadership (e.g. goal, norm and role clarification)
Definition cross-functional team
group of people who apply different skills, with a high degree of interdependence, to ensure the effective delivery of a common objective
What are the unique features of cross-functional teams?
–team members identify more strongly with their function than with the organisation as a whole
–they are temporary (team disbands when the task/project is completed)
–they face high-performance expectations
Cross-functional teams: name critical success factors
–senior management defines teams’ role in the organisation
–strategic alignment between the team’s agenda and inter-departmental agendas
–visible support from top management
–strong project leader
–sound allocation of resources
–effective team motivation and rewards
What is meant by team diversity?
On which levels can diversity occur?
Team diversity: degree to which objective or subjective differences exist between members
- objective differences (e.g. age, gender, ethnicity)
- task process diversity (e.g. decision-making, creativity, innovation, and problem-solving)
- dispositional diversity (e.g. values, personality)
Which dispositional factors help teams?
Openness, conscientiousness and collective orientation aid team performance
Definition of sociotechnical systems
Systems based on the idea that greater productivity in a work unit can be accomplished through the optimisation of the social (human) and technical subsystems embedde in the work unit.
+ reduce absteeism, turnover
+ create work satisfaction
+ increase productivity
+ increase service / quality
- creation of self-directed work units: giving them responsiblity
- provide autonomy
- control and regualtion & feedback is up to team
- greater job enrichment
Druskat and Wheller reported that self-directed teams require oversight from external leaders.
Identified four functional categories of leadership behaviours linking teams with larger organisations. -> which are they?
move back and forth btw team and larger organisation to build trust, improve communication and care for team members.
provide infos from lager organisational context to self-directed team members who may not be privy to such infos
involves mangers securing the support of other top managers and influencing team perofmance
delegate authority, exercise flexiblity regarding team decisitons and provide coaching for members of team