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Flashcards in Week 2 - Communication Deck (15)
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1

What is Communication?

Any means by which two or more individuals exchange information

2

Define: PARALINGUISTIC TECHNIQUES

Non-verbal tools of communication that involve no vocalisation e.g. hand signals, facial expression

3

Define: NON-LINGUISTIC COMMUNICATION

Non-verbal tools of communication that do involve an element of vocalisation e.g. grunts, groans, snorts, sighs

4

Differences between human and animal communication

- The honeybee dance = displacement, creativity
- Primates = share most design features with humans, bar 'tradition', 'prevarication' and 'reflexiveness'

5

Kanzi the Bonobo

- learned approx.. 400 symbols
- he could group the symbols into lexical sets and showed signs of consistent word order
- he could understand some simple spoken English

6

Hockett's Design Features

- Vocal-auditory channel
- Interchangeability
- Complete feedback
- Arbitrariness
- Displacement
- Productivity
- Discreteness
- Semanticity
- Duality of patterning

7

Define: Vocal-auditory channel

(HDF) where speech is based on sounds

8

Define: Interchangeability

(HDF) where the same person is able to both transmit and receive messages

9

Define: Complete feedback

(HDF) while speaking, we can monitor what we are saying

10

Define: Arbitrariness

(HDF) where there is no direct connection between a word and what it refers to

11

Define: Displacement

(HDF) we use speech to refer to things in other times or places

12

Define: Productivity

(HDF) we can use language in novel ways and be creative with it e.g. coinings such as Brexit

13

Define: Discreteness

(HDF) language is based upon a vocabulary of independent, moveable units e.g. changing one phoneme changes one word into another

14

Define: Semanticity

(HDF) specific signals can be matched with specific meanings

15

Define: Duality of patterning

(HDF) smaller units (e.g. phonemes) are combined into larger ones (words)