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Flashcards in Week 5: Lexical Storage Deck (27)
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1

Define: LEXICAL STORAGE

How words are stored in the mind in relation to each other

2

Define: LEXICAL RETRIEVAL

How we reach (or find) a word when we need it

3

Define: NETWORK

A series of connections - Words are linked by a network of forms and meanings, so the things we store are connected

4

What are the two types of RETRIEVAL?

- Selection
- Phonological encoding

5

What are the 4 types of WORD RELATION?

- Derivation
- Co-ordination
- Collocation
- Similar Form

6

Define: COLLOCATION

When two words appear together frequently in everyday speech e.g. salt and pepper, fish and chips

7

Define: SIMILAR FORM

- Homophony (sound similar)
- Homography (orthographically similar)

8

What are the 4 SENSE RELATIONS?

- Synonymy
- Meronymy
- Antonymy
- Hyponymy

9

Define: SYNONYMY

Words that are similar in meaning, but are still contrastive and also can be swapped for one another

10

What are the 4 types of WORD RELATION?

- Derivation
- Co-ordination
- Collocation
- Similar Form

11

Define: HYPONYMY

A word whose semantic field is included with that of another word e.g. apple, fruit

12

Define: COMPLEMENTARY ANTONYMS

Semantically opposite, but where one applies, the other cannot e.g. day, night

13

Define: GRADABLE ANTONYMS

Semantically opposite, but they lie on ends of a scale e.g. big, small

14

Define: ACTIVATION

The key to lexical retrieval and involves access and recognition

15

What is COHORT THEORY?

- The basic idea is that human speech is comprehension is achieved by processing incoming speech continuously as it's heard
- All words that begin with the first letter of the target word are activated, which creates a cohort, and this continues with each sound until the 'recognition point', which consists of a single word

16

Describe: NEURONS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF FREQUENCY

- When we activate a word, a neuron fires an impulse
- The higher the frequency of the word:
> the more often it needs to be activated
> the more often the neuron needs to fire
> the stronger the neuron
> the quicker the word is activated
- THUS - the higher the frequency of a word, the quicker the word is activated

17

Define: SEMANTIC PRIMING

It's easier to recognise a word if you have just seen one that's related in meaning e.g. BREAD and BUTTER

18

Define: FACILITATORY EFFECTS

Where processing is sped up e.g. BREAD and BUTTER

19

Define: INHIBITORY EFFECTS

Where processing is slowed down e.g. BREAD and CHAIR

20

What is SPREADING ACTIVATION THEORY?

- The idea is that activation (like an electrical impulse) runs along the connections that link the words in our minds
- When we see or hear a word, it ‘triggers off’ a reaction, which ‘lights up’ words which have close connections to the stem word
- Thus, those words are more readily available to us if we need them

21

What can evidence from SLIPS OF THE TONGUE show about lexical access and retrieval?

It can show how words are stored and accessed in the mental lexicon.
- If two things are similar to each other and are involved in the same level of processing, they'll either assist or interfere with each other, but if unrelated there will be no effect

22

Define: SLIPS OF THE TONGUE

'Errors' of speech production

23

Define: DERIVATION

One word is derived from another, maintaining a semantic connection e.g. HAPPY, UNHAPPY

24

Define: CO-ORDINATION

Refers to two words that appear together a lot, and are often, but not always, collocations

25

Define: COLLOCATION

Where two words co-occur more often than would be expected by chance, which = higher frequency and strengthening of neural pathways

26

Define: SIMILAR FORM

- Homophony (similar phonological features)
- Homography (similar orthographic features)

27

Define: MERONYMY

Refers to the relationship between a whole and its constituent parts