Week 10: Reading Processes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 10: Reading Processes Deck (35)
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1

Complete the sentence: RECOGNITION OF WORDS IS IMPORTANT, BUT THEY MUST BE...

Recognition of words is important, but they must be understood

2

What is required for the content of the text to be understood?

Individual words have to be processed quickly, and sufficiently quickly for meaning to be constructed

3

What are the 2 levels of DECODING IN READING

- Lower Level decoding
- Higher Level decoding

4

Define: LOWER LEVEL DECODING

Refers to the basics i.e. decoding and accessing lexical entries and word recognition

5

Define: HIGHER LEVEL DECODING

Refers to more complex notions, such as inferences, background knowledge, constructing meaning, interpreting intentions etc.

6

What level of processing is more automatised in SKILLED readers?

Lower level processing is more automatised in skilled readers, which means they have more WM capacity to attend to higher level processes, such as meaning construction

7

What drives language processing?

Meaning: language is meaning-driven.

8

What are the two routes of decoding?

- The lexical route
- The sub-lexical route

9

Define: THE LEXICAL ROUTE

Processing words as 'whole' lexemes

10

Define: THE SUB-LEXICAL ROUTE

Processing words by 'sounding it out' and looking at discrete graphemes

11

Define: NEIGHBOURHOOD EFFECTS

Refers to the number of words that share its rime
- Words can be 'friends' - share the same rime
- Words can be 'enemies' - orthographically identical, but different pronunciation

12

Example: NEIGHBOURHOOD EFFECTS

FRIENDS - 'gOPE' - anything ending in sounds the same
ENEMIES - 'hEAF' - could be as in 'lEAF', or 'dEAF'

13

How do we describe a sound that can be pronounced differently?

The sound is said to have multiple phonological reresentations

14

What does THE STROOP TEST tell us about reading processes?

- It shows that decoding processes are automatised
- The processing of words is so automatic that you can't 'turn it off' without effort
- If word recognition is interfered with, visual processing is able to 'catch up'

15

What is THE 'AUTOMATICITY' ADVANTAGE?

- Our ability to recognise words automatically and to anticipate words is crucial to our ability to read fast
- The more automatised our processes are, the larger capacity our WM has to access higher-level meaning

16

What are the 3 ways of studying EYE MOVEMENTS?

GAZE
SACCADES
FIXATIONS

17

Define: SACCADES

Eye movement in one direction or the other

18

Define: FIXATIONS

Eyes resting upon a point

19

Define: REGRESSIONS

When one 'back-tracks' in their reading - i.e. reading from right to left

20

What are typical features of UNSKILLED readers?

- more fixations
- more regressions
- get more stuck at lower level processes e.g. word recognition, which means it's harder to construct higher-level meaning

21

What are typical features of SKILLED readers?

- fewer fixations
- fewer regressions
- able to build higher-level meaning

22

What can tracking SACCADES help with re. reading?

It can help with efficiency of reading behaviour

23

What can tracking FIXATIONS help with re. reading?

It can help to identify areas of text that pose problems

24

What can influence the ease of reading, bar the skill level of the reader?

The difficulty of the text

25

What is MISCUE ANALYSIS in reading?

A person will read a piece of prose aloud to another person, who will be audio or video recording, whilst taking notes re. any 'miscues'/mistakes the reader makes.

26

What does MISCUE ANALYSIS allow for?

It allows to see the different behaviours of skilled and unskilled readers

27

What differentiates between skilled and unskilled readers regrading miscues?

The type of micue made

28

What are features from a MISCUE ANALYSIS shown by an UNSKILLED reader?

- More likely to miss the core meaning
- There may be no attempt to apply grapho-phonic knowledge (sounding it out)
- More likely to guess or omit words they don't know

29

What are features from a MISCUE ANALYSIS shown by a SKILLED reader?

- Have more resources available for when a word isn't immediately recognised
- There may be hesitation before 'tricky' words, which is more expected as they try to figure it out
- Less likely to guess or omit words, because they're reading at a higher-level - to gain meaning
- Miscues don't detract from meaning

30

What are the 3 MAIN TYPES OF READING ERRORS?

- the grapho-phonic system
- the semantic system
- the syntactic system