Flashcards in Week 10: Reading Processes Deck (35)
Complete the sentence: RECOGNITION OF WORDS IS IMPORTANT, BUT THEY MUST BE...
Recognition of words is important, but they must be understood
What is required for the content of the text to be understood?
Individual words have to be processed quickly, and sufficiently quickly for meaning to be constructed
What are the 2 levels of DECODING IN READING
- Lower Level decoding
- Higher Level decoding
Define: LOWER LEVEL DECODING
Refers to the basics i.e. decoding and accessing lexical entries and word recognition
Define: HIGHER LEVEL DECODING
Refers to more complex notions, such as inferences, background knowledge, constructing meaning, interpreting intentions etc.
What level of processing is more automatised in SKILLED readers?
Lower level processing is more automatised in skilled readers, which means they have more WM capacity to attend to higher level processes, such as meaning construction
What drives language processing?
Meaning: language is meaning-driven.
What are the two routes of decoding?
- The lexical route
- The sub-lexical route
Define: THE LEXICAL ROUTE
Processing words as 'whole' lexemes
Define: THE SUB-LEXICAL ROUTE
Processing words by 'sounding it out' and looking at discrete graphemes
Define: NEIGHBOURHOOD EFFECTS
Refers to the number of words that share its rime
- Words can be 'friends' - share the same rime
- Words can be 'enemies' - orthographically identical, but different pronunciation
Example: NEIGHBOURHOOD EFFECTS
FRIENDS - 'gOPE' - anything ending in sounds the same
ENEMIES - 'hEAF' - could be as in 'lEAF', or 'dEAF'
How do we describe a sound that can be pronounced differently?
The sound is said to have multiple phonological reresentations
What does THE STROOP TEST tell us about reading processes?
- It shows that decoding processes are automatised
- The processing of words is so automatic that you can't 'turn it off' without effort
- If word recognition is interfered with, visual processing is able to 'catch up'
What is THE 'AUTOMATICITY' ADVANTAGE?
- Our ability to recognise words automatically and to anticipate words is crucial to our ability to read fast
- The more automatised our processes are, the larger capacity our WM has to access higher-level meaning
What are the 3 ways of studying EYE MOVEMENTS?
Eye movement in one direction or the other
Eyes resting upon a point
When one 'back-tracks' in their reading - i.e. reading from right to left
What are typical features of UNSKILLED readers?
- more fixations
- more regressions
- get more stuck at lower level processes e.g. word recognition, which means it's harder to construct higher-level meaning
What are typical features of SKILLED readers?
- fewer fixations
- fewer regressions
- able to build higher-level meaning
What can tracking SACCADES help with re. reading?
It can help with efficiency of reading behaviour
What can tracking FIXATIONS help with re. reading?
It can help to identify areas of text that pose problems
What can influence the ease of reading, bar the skill level of the reader?
The difficulty of the text
What is MISCUE ANALYSIS in reading?
A person will read a piece of prose aloud to another person, who will be audio or video recording, whilst taking notes re. any 'miscues'/mistakes the reader makes.
What does MISCUE ANALYSIS allow for?
It allows to see the different behaviours of skilled and unskilled readers
What differentiates between skilled and unskilled readers regrading miscues?
The type of micue made
What are features from a MISCUE ANALYSIS shown by an UNSKILLED reader?
- More likely to miss the core meaning
- There may be no attempt to apply grapho-phonic knowledge (sounding it out)
- More likely to guess or omit words they don't know
What are features from a MISCUE ANALYSIS shown by a SKILLED reader?
- Have more resources available for when a word isn't immediately recognised
- There may be hesitation before 'tricky' words, which is more expected as they try to figure it out
- Less likely to guess or omit words, because they're reading at a higher-level - to gain meaning
- Miscues don't detract from meaning