Flashcards in Week 3 - Language and the Brain Deck (22)
Name: THE FOUR LOBES OF THE BRAIN
Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
Name: THE LANGUAGE AREAS OF THE BRAIN
Wernicke's area, Broca's Area
A communication disorder that involves the loss of some or all language abilities following damage to the left hemisphere
Define: BROCA'S AREA
An area of the left frontal lobe in the brain that is responsible for language production
Define: WERNICKE'S AREA
An area of the left temporal lobe in the brain that is responsible for language comprehension
Define: BROCA'S APHASIA
Damage to the Broca's area that results in the limiting or loss of language production
Define: WENICKE'S APHASIA
Damage to the Wernicke's area that results in the limiting or loss of language comprehension
What is the Wada test?
A test used to investigate brain localisation in which a substance is injected into different parts of the brain to see what abilities are affected. When the LH is injected language is 'disabled'
What is Dichotic Listening?
Different sounds/words are played simultaneously in each ear and the message that dominates is near always the one that is played in the right ear, as the right ear is connected to the left hemisphere
Define: BRAIN LOCALISATION
Different areas of the brain have different functions
Define: BRAIN LATERALISATION
The tendency for some neural functions or cognitive processes to be specialised to one hemisphere or the other
What is another name for the brain?
Define: THE CORPUS CALLOSUM
The thick band of nerve fibres that divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres and connects them, allowing them to communicate
Define: CONTRALATERAL RELATIONSHIP (re. the brain)
The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and vice-versa
Differences between the human and animal brains
- The cortex is much more extensive and more controlling over the vocal tract in humans, thus there is a larger area specialised for language
- The pre-frontal area is 6x bigger in humans, which allows production of language
- In humans more of the motor area controls vocal vocal area
How do studies of communication disorders help our understanding of language?
Errors made by sufferers of communication disorders help us see how speech and language are put together
What is a commissurotomy?
An operation that involves splitting the two brain hemispheres by severing the corpus callosum
What have commissurotomy's told us about language?
Patients can name objects in their RVF, but not in their left, which could be because they can only communicate using the LH
Typical symptoms of Wernicke's Aphasia
- Speech fluency
- Nonsense syllables - speech has no meaning
- No awareness that language has meaning
Typical symptoms of Broca's Aphasia
- Know what they want to say
- Incomplete grammar
- Faulty production of language
- Greater struggle with longer words
What are limitations of using Aphasic patients as a means of studying language?
- Validity is questionable - are you actually researching normal processing?
- You can't assume that effects would be the same for a neurotypical person
- You have to consider individual differences - could effects simply be unique to that individual?