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Flashcards in Week 3 - Language and the Brain Deck (22)
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1

Name: THE FOUR LOBES OF THE BRAIN

Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

2

Name: THE LANGUAGE AREAS OF THE BRAIN

Wernicke's area, Broca's Area

3

Define: APHASIA

A communication disorder that involves the loss of some or all language abilities following damage to the left hemisphere

4

Define: BROCA'S AREA

An area of the left frontal lobe in the brain that is responsible for language production

5

Define: WERNICKE'S AREA

An area of the left temporal lobe in the brain that is responsible for language comprehension

6

Define: BROCA'S APHASIA

Damage to the Broca's area that results in the limiting or loss of language production

7

Define: WENICKE'S APHASIA

Damage to the Wernicke's area that results in the limiting or loss of language comprehension

8

What is the Wada test?

A test used to investigate brain localisation in which a substance is injected into different parts of the brain to see what abilities are affected. When the LH is injected language is 'disabled'

9

What is Dichotic Listening?

Different sounds/words are played simultaneously in each ear and the message that dominates is near always the one that is played in the right ear, as the right ear is connected to the left hemisphere

10

Define: BRAIN LOCALISATION

Different areas of the brain have different functions

11

Define: BRAIN LATERALISATION

The tendency for some neural functions or cognitive processes to be specialised to one hemisphere or the other

12

What is another name for the brain?

The Cerebrum

13

Define: THE CORPUS CALLOSUM

The thick band of nerve fibres that divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres and connects them, allowing them to communicate

14

Define: CONTRALATERAL RELATIONSHIP (re. the brain)

The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and vice-versa

15

Differences between the human and animal brains

- The cortex is much more extensive and more controlling over the vocal tract in humans, thus there is a larger area specialised for language
- The pre-frontal area is 6x bigger in humans, which allows production of language
- In humans more of the motor area controls vocal vocal area

16

How do studies of communication disorders help our understanding of language?

Errors made by sufferers of communication disorders help us see how speech and language are put together

17

What is a commissurotomy?

An operation that involves splitting the two brain hemispheres by severing the corpus callosum

18

What have commissurotomy's told us about language?

Patients can name objects in their RVF, but not in their left, which could be because they can only communicate using the LH

19

Typical symptoms of Wernicke's Aphasia

- Speech fluency
- Nonsense syllables - speech has no meaning
- No awareness that language has meaning

20

Typical symptoms of Broca's Aphasia

- Know what they want to say
- Incomplete grammar
- Faulty production of language
- Greater struggle with longer words

21

What are limitations of using Aphasic patients as a means of studying language?

- Validity is questionable - are you actually researching normal processing?
- You can't assume that effects would be the same for a neurotypical person
- You have to consider individual differences - could effects simply be unique to that individual?

22

Define: THE CEREBELLUM

The part of the brain at the back of the skull that is responsible for receiving senses and controls movement