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Flashcards in Week 5 Deck (22):

Amplitude =

loudness (db)


Frequency =

pitch (Hz)


Human hearing range =

20-20 000 hz


Typical vocal range =

80 - 1100 hz


The fundamental of a sound =

the lowest frequency component of a complex sound


A harmonic =

the integer multiple of a fundamental e.g. 440 fundamental = 880 2nd, 1320 3rd e.t.c.


What helps increase the sound amplitude and detect which direction the sound is coming from?

Pinna (outer ear)


What provides protection, and increases the sound amplitude?

External auditory canal (second part inside the ear) (Still outer ear)


What vibrates in response to sound waves, and moves bones inside the middle ear?

Eardrum (tympanic membrane)(Still outer ear)


Name the ossicles, and their function?

Malleus, Incus, Stapes, Smallest bones in body, transmit vibrations (w some amplification) from the eardrum through to the chochlear via lever actions. Also provide protection from high amplitude sound (muscles attached restrict bone movement). (Middle ear)


Name the 2 constituents of the inner ear?

semicircular canals, and the chochlea.


Describe the structure and function of the chochlea:

contains auditory sensory receptors,stapes from middle ear is connected directly to the oval window - where vibrations are transmitted into the chochlea, is filled with watery substance that transmits vibrations from the middle ear


Name the three canals in the inner ear?

vestibular, tympanic, and chochlea duct, separated by Reissner's membrane, and Basilar membrane, on which auditory receptor cells (hair cells) are located, membranes move in response to the vibrations from the oval window


Explain how neural auditory signals are generated.

When basilar membrane vibrates, the hair cells in chochlear duct are set in motion, converting the vibrations into neural signals.


Phase =

Postion within cycle


Explain how neural signals are sent via the auditory system

Hair cells move, potassium ions go in pores, neurotransmitters released, neural signals sent down auditory nerves.


List the sites that nerve fibres synapse at on the way to the primary auditory cortex.

1. Chochlear nucleus, superior olivary nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate nucleus


Where does the auditory signal split and go to each hemisphere?

Splits at chochlear nucleus and is present in both hemis in superior olivary nucleus


List some possible 'things' that are happening on the 'stops' before the sound reaches the auditory cortex.

responses to the onset of sound, changes in sound intensity and frequency


List some tasks which cannot be performed without a cortex

discrimination of sound pattern and duration, localising sounds,


The peak in the ____ indicates the frequency of the sound

basilar membrane


Hair cells are tuned to different frequency ranges depending on their position on the ______

basilar membrane (each hair cell has it's own receptive field, similar to visual system)