Week 7 Audition Flashcards Preview

Perception and Cognition > Week 7 Audition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 7 Audition Deck (15):
1

Describe attention

We are continuously exposed to more information that is possible to process simultaneously, so we utilise our resources and selectively focus on important pieces of information. This selection is called attention.

2

When does selection occur?

During pathway from sensation to action, there is a point at which a person cannot process all the stimuli in parallel - attentional bottleneck.

3

Describe the early selection theory #1 Filter Theory

Only some information is selected for further processing

2 different auditory tracks in each ear, only speak one message, unattended message ignored, however some non-semantic-information retained

Cocktail party effect - you can hear your name mentioned at a party, but not all the conversations. CONTRARY EVIDENCE

4

Explain the early selection theory #2 Salience of attention theory

Early partial filter to unimportant messages, not all information is filtered out entirely, aka not a complete filter

5

Explain late selection theory

The filter occurs after the information has undergone screening for semantic information. Target will be equally detected in both ears

6

Which theory is generally accepted, late or early selection theories?

Early is accepted, attentional selection is early!

7

Top-down, goal driven attention is

voluntary

8

Bottom-up, stimulus driven is

reflexive

9

Describe object based attention

Quicker detection quicker when object is located in same object

10

Describe Posner's cueing paradigm

Either a valid, non-valid or no cue was given. Unexpected stimuli gave the slowest reaction time, then no-expectation, then expected was the fastest. Key remark - participants eyes not moving. Conclusions - attention is changing independent of eye movement.

11

Describe reflexive attention

Similar protocole to Posners, but time delay in between cue and response stimuli. Response time slower in response to 'helping flash'. Conclusions - reflexive attention prevents attention from being 'stuck' at reflexive point for too long.

12

Describe object-based attention

Quicker reaction times to cued objects, same spatial difference apart, but difference is belonging to either 'object', same flashes in the same object elicit quicker reaction times.

13

Describe attentional aspects of visual search

Finding a target is more difficult when the aspects of the scene are comprised of the same aspects as the target stimuli. e.g. horizontal bars e.t.c.. Array size of stimuli increases RT in difficult condition, but not in easy condition.

14

Describe feature integration theory

people most focus attention on a stimuli before they can integrate the features into a pattern , without focussed attention. the individual aspects of the stimuli are noticed, but not integrated accurately

15

Describe the Stroop effect

3 words, in different colours, trouble reading the words which juxtapose the colours. RT increases massively