Flashcards in Week 5 Deck (88)
What is the definition of diarrhoea?
loss of fluid and solutions from the GI tract in excess of 500ml per day
List some causes of diarrhoea
Infection - viral/bacterial/parasites
Excess bile salts
What can use of broad spectrum antibiotics cause the development of?
Clostridium Difficile Colitis
What are some of the adverse effects diarrhoea has on the body?
What percentage of body weight contitutes severe fluid loss?
What are the three classes of drugs/ management used for the treatment of diarrhoea?
What are some of the causes of constipation?
Lack of exercise
Suppressing the urge to defecate
Decreased colonic motility - age, metabolic disorders e.t.c
Which two drug classes are used to manage constipation?
What are the 4 main classes of laxatives and purgatives and which is the most commonly used?
BULK LAXATIVES (most commonly used)
What are some of the clinical indications of laxatives?
Straining with constipation
For expulsion of parasites
To prepare the GI tract before surgery e.t.c
If acute travellers diarrhoea occurs after the patient has spent time on a cruise ship, what should be suspected?
Norovirus and Rotavirus
How does cholera present?
Profuse watery diarrhoea
What can be given as a single dose for 3 days for people who are travelling to prevent worsening of diarrhoea?
Fluoroquinolone / Ciprofloxacin
What is enteric fever?
A food born illness which includes typhoid and paratyphoid fever
Does enteric fever have a long or short incubation period?
Quite long (7-18 days - can be up to 60)
Which type of jaundice is associated with HUS as a complication?
What are the genetic associations of IBD?
In terms of IBD, which disease is TH1 mediated and which is TH1/ TH2 mediated?
Crohn's - TH1 mediated
Ulcerative Colitis - TH1/ TH2 mediated
Which inflammatory bowel disease is aggravated by smoking?
Which drug class can aggravate inflammatory bowel disease and should be avoided if possible?
Where in the GI tract does Crohn's disease affect?
Anywhere from mouth to anus, most commonly in the terminal ileum and proximal colon
Where in the GI tract does ulcerative colitis affect?
Colon and rectum
Which inflammatory bowel disease can be described as being patchy with skip lesions?
Which kind of inflammation does Crohn's disease involve and which kind does ulcerative colitis involve (in terms of layers of the GI tract wall affected)
Crohn's = transmural inflammation
Ulcerative Colitis = Inflammation of the mucosa and submucosa
Which inflammatory bowel disease is continuous?
Which inflammatory bowel disease involves; granulomas and a thickened bowel and strictures?
In which IBD are fistulas most common?
Which IBD has the highest risk of cancer?
What are some of the complications of IBD? List 3!