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Flashcards in Week 5 Deck (88)
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1

What is the definition of diarrhoea?

loss of fluid and solutions from the GI tract in excess of 500ml per day

2

List some causes of diarrhoea

Infection - viral/bacterial/parasites
IBD
IBS
Excess bile salts
Hyperthyroidism
Drugs

3

What can use of broad spectrum antibiotics cause the development of?

Clostridium Difficile Colitis

4

What are some of the adverse effects diarrhoea has on the body?

Dehydration
Hypokalaemia
Metabolic acidosis

5

What percentage of body weight contitutes severe fluid loss?

>10%

6

What are the three classes of drugs/ management used for the treatment of diarrhoea?

Rehydration supplements
Antimicrobials
Anti-motility agents

7

What are some of the causes of constipation?

Lack of exercise
Suppressing the urge to defecate
Decreased colonic motility - age, metabolic disorders e.t.c

8

Which two drug classes are used to manage constipation?

Laxatives
Purgatives

9

What are the 4 main classes of laxatives and purgatives and which is the most commonly used?

BULK LAXATIVES (most commonly used)
OMOTIC LAXATIVES
STIMULANT PURGATIVES
FAECAL SOFTENERS

10

What are some of the clinical indications of laxatives?

Straining with constipation
Painful defecation
Bedridden patients
For expulsion of parasites
To prepare the GI tract before surgery e.t.c

11

If acute travellers diarrhoea occurs after the patient has spent time on a cruise ship, what should be suspected?

Norovirus and Rotavirus

12

How does cholera present?

Profuse watery diarrhoea

13

What can be given as a single dose for 3 days for people who are travelling to prevent worsening of diarrhoea?

Fluoroquinolone / Ciprofloxacin

14

What is enteric fever?

A food born illness which includes typhoid and paratyphoid fever

15

Does enteric fever have a long or short incubation period?

Quite long (7-18 days - can be up to 60)

16

Which type of jaundice is associated with HUS as a complication?

Pre-hepatic (haemolytic)

17

What are the genetic associations of IBD?

NOD2
HLADR1

18

In terms of IBD, which disease is TH1 mediated and which is TH1/ TH2 mediated?

Crohn's - TH1 mediated
Ulcerative Colitis - TH1/ TH2 mediated

19

Which inflammatory bowel disease is aggravated by smoking?

Crohn's Disease

20

Which drug class can aggravate inflammatory bowel disease and should be avoided if possible?

NSAIDs

21

Where in the GI tract does Crohn's disease affect?

Anywhere from mouth to anus, most commonly in the terminal ileum and proximal colon

22

Where in the GI tract does ulcerative colitis affect?

Colon and rectum

23

Which inflammatory bowel disease can be described as being patchy with skip lesions?

Crohn's Disease

24

Which kind of inflammation does Crohn's disease involve and which kind does ulcerative colitis involve (in terms of layers of the GI tract wall affected)

Crohn's = transmural inflammation
Ulcerative Colitis = Inflammation of the mucosa and submucosa

25

Which inflammatory bowel disease is continuous?

Ulcerative Colitis

26

Which inflammatory bowel disease involves; granulomas and a thickened bowel and strictures?

Crohn's disease

27

In which IBD are fistulas most common?

Crohn's disease

28

Which IBD has the highest risk of cancer?

Ulcerative colitis

29

What are some of the complications of IBD? List 3!

Fistulas
Toxic megacolon
Cancer (colorectal)

30

What are some of the extra intestinal associations of IBD?

Mouth ulcers
Swollen lips
Angular cheillitis
Clubbing
Erythema nodosum
Pyoderma Gangrenosum
Arthritis