Flashcards in Week 7: Classical Conditioning Deck (41):
Classical conditioning is also known as...
What is classical or pavlovian conitioning?
Learning the association between 2 or more stimuli
Instrumental conditioning is also known as...
What is instrumental or operant conditioning?
Learning the association between a behaviour and its consequence
In pavlov's experiments, the meat powder was the...
Unconditional stimulus (US)
What does it mean if something is an unconditional stimulus?
It elicits an unconditional response regardless of past learning history (it is biologically determined, eg. meat powder makes a dog drool).
In pavlov's experiments, the tone was the...
What is a conditional stimulus?
It was neutral prior to conditioning, but when paired with an unconditional stimulus it can elicit a conditional response (CR)
What part of the CNS is engaged during conditioning?
The sympathetic nervous system
During classical conditioning, what is acquisition?
The conditional stimulus acquiring the ability to elicit a conditional response.
During classical conditioning, what is extinction?
The conditional stimulus will gradually lose its ability to elicit a conditioned response.
What is spontaneous recovery? (after 24 hours)
After extinction, a conditional response will be shown when presented with the conditional stimulus, but it will be a smaller reaction.
What are the 4 types of acquisition in order from most to least effective?
1. Trace conditioning - most
2. Delay conditioning
3. Simultaneous conitioning
4. Backward conditioning - least
What is delay conditioning?
The conditional stimulus comes before the unconditioned stimulus but can overlap.
(eg. tone, meat powder)
What is Trace conditioning?
The most effective form of conditioning.
The conditional stimulus occurs, then a small break and then the unconditional stimulus is provided.
(eg. tone, break, meat powder)
What is simultaneous conditioning?
The conditional stimulus and unconditional stimulus are provided at the same time.
(eg. tone and meat powder at the same time)
What is backward conditioning?
The unconditional stimulus is provided before the conditioned stimulus.
(eg. meat powder, then tone)
What is stimulus generalisation?
What gradient is evident here.
Conditional response is elicited for stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus.
Gradient: the closer to the conditional stimulus that it is, the higher the unconditional response will be (eg. an 800hz tone will elicit more response than a 600hz tone)
What is stimulus discrimination?
A conditional response is only elicited when paired with the original unconditional stimulus.
What is higher order conditioning
Some next level shit.
The conditional stimulus can become the unconditional stimulus eg.
tone + meat powder = salivation
light + tone = salivation
tone = salivation
Describe a real life application of classical conditioning.
Phobias - can occur from the pairing of a neutral stimulus (eg. snake) with an aversive consequence (eg. bite).
Describe the experiments on Little Albert
Researchers paired animals with a loud gong, so albert learned to fear the rat and other similar stimuli (white kitten, white blanket - STIMULUS GENERALISATION)
In the experiments on Little Albert, he did not fear dogs. What concept does this demonstrate?
Stimulus discrimination - a dog was not close enough to the conditional stimulus of the white rat to elicit a conditional response (crying).
Repeated presentations of a feared stimukus will result in a reduction of fear response. This is an example of...
When a relapse occurs during exposure therapy, this is an example of...
Exposure therapy is referred to in the field as...
The penicillin of psychology
What is systematic desensitisation?
Exposing a person in gradual steps to thier fear (eg. a drawing of a spider, a photo, one in a jar, holding the jr, holding the spider).
How is classial conditioning evident in political campaigms?
Positively - Pairing the candidate with a baby, a flag.
Negatively - Pairing with budgie smugglers or looking ugly or sneaky.
An advanced classical conditioning phenomena is Preparedness. What is it?
Some associations are formed more easily than others due to evolutionary history (g. predators).
A decreased strength of a reflex after repeated exposure to it (eg. a ticking clock) is called...
The associations formed between stimulus and response as a result of conditioning is called...
One of the factors crucial to conditioning is...
The temporal order of the CS and UCS
Rescorla and Wagner's law of prediction suggests that...
classical conditioning involves more than an mechanical response (cognition is also involved)
Long term potentiation is when groups of neurons...
fire more readily after consistent stimulation from other neurons (due to conditioning)
What are the 3 main assumptions of most THEORIES OF LEARNING?
1. Experience shapes behaviour
2. Learning is adaptive
3. Careful experimentation can teach us more about learning
Extinction in classical conditioning results from the omission of the...
The biological wiring of an organism to learn some associations more easily than others is...
When the body attempts to counteract the effects of a stimulus (eg. as seen in heroin addicts), this is called...
conditioned taste aversions generally result from____ and are crucial to______.
The purpose of the experiments on little Albert was to prove that...
emotional responses can be learned.