Week 8: Operant (instrumental) conditioning Flashcards Preview

CogBog Sem 1 End of Semester Exam > Week 8: Operant (instrumental) conditioning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 8: Operant (instrumental) conditioning Deck (51):
1

What did the research of Edward L Thorndike involve?

Testing problem solving on cats in puzzle boxes.

2

What is the law of effect?

Behaviour that produces a positive outcome will be more likely to be repeated.
Behaviour that produces a negative outcome will be less likely to be repeated.

3

Skinner pioneered research on operant conditioning using a device called...

The Skinner Box - a lever pressed = a pellet dropped

4

What was the Skinner box used to research?

the learning of associations between behaviour and consequences.

5

Reinforcement can be positive or negative, explain

Positive reinforcement - something given that is pleasant
eg. press bar = pellet
Negative reinforcement - Something is removed that produces a pleasant outcome
eg. remove electric shock when bar is pressed

6

Punishment can be positive or negative, explain.

Positive punishment - something is presented that is unpleasant
eg. lever pressed = electric shock
Negative punishment - something is removed which produces an unpleasant feeling
eg. rude child = take away pocket momey

7

What is the most effective type of reinforcement?

Positive reinforcement

8

During reinforcement, the consequence is...

Pleasant

9

During punishment, the consequence is...

Unpleasant

10

What is shaping and give an example from Skinner's box?

the reinforcement of responses that are closer and closer to the desired response.
eg. approach the bar = seed given
touch the bar = seed given
press the bar = seed given

11

What type of reinforcement or punishment is being shown:
Rat presses lever = food given = tendency to press lever increases

Positive reinforcement

12

What type of reinforcement or punishment is being shown:
Rat presses lever = electric shocks stop = tendency to press lever will increase

Negative reinforcement

13

What type of reinforcement or punishment is being shown:
Rat presses lever = shock given = tendency to press lever decreases

Positive punishment

14

What type of reinforcement or punishment is being shown:
Pigeon pecks at disc = loud noise = less likely to peck at noise

positive punishment

15

What type of reinforcement or punishment is being shown:
A`parent taking away a child's ipad following bad behaviour

negative punishment

16

What type of reinforcement or punishment is being shown:
A child tidies her room and is immediately praised by her parents

positive reinforcement

17

What type of reinforcement or punishment is being shown:
An alcoholic who takes the drug Antabuse gets violently ill after drinking beer

positive punishment

18

After being rude to his mother, a boy is not allowed to go to a party.

negative punishment

19

If a child asked her mother for a chocolate when they went shopping, and the child asked her father for a chocolate on the next shopping trip, what concept is being demonstrated?

Stimulus generalisation

20

When a dog begged, his owner gave him a treat. The owner no longer gives him treats.
What concept is being demonstrated?

Extinction

21

A child has a temper tantrum at the shops, so his mother gives him a chocolate to shut him up.
This is an example of...

positive reinforcement

22

A person with hayfever feels better after taking antihistamine.

Negative reinforcement

23

A person immediately checks their mobile phone when the text alert sounds.

Discriminative stimulus

24

What is a discriminative stimulus? Give an example from the Skinner Box.

cues that influence behaviour by indicating a probable consequence of behaviour.
eg. pressing the bar ill only be followed by pellets if the light is on.

25

Give 2 examples of how situtional and organismal factors influence the salience of reinforcers and punishers.

1. Food reinforcement is only effective if the organism is hungry.
2. Sending a child to their room is only effective if there are not enjoyable toys and games in there for them.

26

What are the 2 types of reinforcers and punishers?
Give examples of each?

1. Primary reinforcers - eg. food,, warmth, protection, sex.
2. Secondary reinforcers - are reinforcing due to prior association with primary reinforcers. eg. jewellery, luxury cars.

27

What are 2 schedules of reinforcers?

1. Continuous renforcement - after every occurence 9f the behaviour
2. Intermittent reinforcement - only after some occurrences of the behaviour.

28

Which scchedule of reinforcement leads to faster learning?

Continuous reinforcement

29

Which schedule of reinforcement leads to greater resistance to extinction?

Intermittent reinforcement

30

What are the 4 basic types of reinforcement schedules?

1. Fixed ratio - A reward per set number of responses
2. Variable ratio - a reward per average number of items
3. Fixed interval - a reward after certain times have elapsed
4. Variable interval - a reward after averaged times have elapsed

31

Which type of reinforcement schedule is the most effective long term?

Variable interval - a low, steady rate of reward

32

Which type of reinforcement schedule produces the fastest learning?

Fixed ratio - reward every time

33

What is matching law?
Provide an example

Organisms can distinguish between different reinforcement schedules
eg. a pigeon pecking at a white and black discs will learn to distinguish between different reinforcement schedules

34

What is cognitive social learning?

Classical and operant conditioning evident on social learning.

35

What is latent learning?
Provide an example

Learning in the absence of reinforcement. eg. rats in a maze for 10 trials with no reinforcement performed as well as those with reinforcement.

36

What is learned helplessness?
Provide 2 examples

When an organism stops trying to seek out alternatives to stop punishment.
eg. Dogs given electric shocks with no escape gave up and did not try to escape even when an escape route became available.
eg. people with depression - see no way to change or escape

37

What is vicarious conditioning or modelling?
Provide an example.

When responses are influenced by observations of others.
eg. Bobo the clown - kids beat him up when they watched others do it or were kind to him if others were.

38

Modelling is a 4 step process, what are the 4 steps?

Attention
Retention
Motivation
Reproduction

39

What is learning through verbal and/or visual instructions called?

tutelage

40

What is an example of discriminiatry simuli for a smoker?

the presence of an ashtray or smoking area sign

41

Thorndike is associated with

the law of effect

42

Skinner is associated with

operant conditioning

43

What schedule of reinforcement produces the highest and most consistent outcome?

variable ratio

44

Cognitive social theory argues that ________affects whether a particular behaviour is going to occur?

Expectations

45

A way of conducting operant conditioning that capitalises on past behaviours is called...

shaping

46

Each time your dog sits, you give him a liver treat. This is an example of

continuous reinforcement schedule

47

Eliminating an aversive state of affairs, like cleaning out your garage to locate and remove a bad small is called...

escape learning

48

Cognitive social theory incorporates behaviour concepts of conditioning with what 2 things?

cognition and social learning

49

Taking panadol to relieve a headache is...

negative reinforcement

50

The best way of eliminating bad behaviour is...

stopping reinforcement until the behaviour ceases

51

Putting off study until the night before exams and then cramming every exam is an example of...

a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule