Week 13: Language Flashcards Preview

CogBog Sem 1 End of Semester Exam > Week 13: Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 13: Language Deck (31):
1

The structure of sounds in language are called...

phonology

2

The rules for combining different types of words into a sentence is called...

syntax

3

The meaning in words is called...

semantics

4

The implied meanings in language are called...

pragmatics

5

How many different phonemes can humans produce?

About 100 (English speakers use about 35)

6

Noam Chomsky determined that grammar is different from...

meaning

7

What are the smallest units of meaning in a language?

morphemes

8

Mental sentences that represent the unambiguous meaning of assertions are called...

propositional representations

9

What is aphasia?

disruption of language due to brain damage

10

Damage to the frontal lobe could include which area?
What would be the result?

Broca's area
Problems producing speech

11

Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere could include which area?
What would be the result?

Wernicke's area
Problems comprehending language

12

Metaphors and humour involve what dimension of language?

pragmatics

13

There are 2 schools of thought regarding language development. What are they?

Empiricism - language is entirely learned
Nativism - some language is innate (LAD)

14

What was the LAD

Language Acquisition Device
Noam Chomsky
A biological function/element that allows us to know language

15

What was Skinner's case for language acquisition? (NURTURE)

Operant conditioning - reinforcement and shaping used to teach language
Children imitate parents

16

What was Chomsky's case for language acquisition? (NATURE)

Language is universal across cultures
LAD
Children use complex grammar long before other skills like mathematics

17

What is the growth pattern of vocabulary until grade 5?

It doubles every 2 years until grade 5

18

What does a critical period in language acquisition refer to?

We must develop a function within a certain time frame or it wont develop at all

19

The 4 main elements of language are...

Phonemes
Morphemes
Phrases
Sentences

20

A defining feature of language is that it is...

arbitrary ('dog' could just as easily have been used for cat.

21

According to Skinner, language is learned as a result of careful application of...

rewards and punishments

22

What condition makes it difficult to learn speech in childhood?

dyslexia

23

What is the cognitive explanation for dyslexia?

In the left hemisphere, linguistic circuits are not functioning properly

24

What is the correct sequence for language learning?

Babbling
one-word sentences
telegraphic speech
grammatical speech

25

What is telegraphic speech?

using only the most essential words for meaning
eg. dog out

26

The way language is used and understood in everyday life is concerned with...

pragmatics

27

How was implicit learning observed in bonobos?

Babies copy symbols used by mothers
They announce intentions (eg. pressing ball symbol before seeking out the ball)

28

People who are bilingual and multilingual...

Think differently, depending on the langauge they are using

29

According to the Whorfian hypothesis of linguistic relativity...

language shapes thought

30

Someone with ventromedial prefrontal cortical damage will demonstrate what traits?

Not be able to solve complex problems
Have difficulty inhibiting thoughts and emotions
Show deficits in moral behaviour
Show personality disturbances

31

The rules that govern the placement of words and phrases in sentences refers to...

syntax