Flashcards in Week 5: Memory Deck (57):
What is memory?
Taking something we have observed and converting into a form that we can STORE, RETRIEVE and USE.
What are the 3 basic memory processes?
Encoding - Getting info into the memory
Storage- Keeping the info in memory
Retrieval -Accessing info at a later time
What is attention?
Focusing attention on a specific stimuli.
What is a mental representation and what are the 3 types?
A mental model of stimulus or category.
1. sensory representation (seeing, hearing etc)
2. Verbal representation - information stored in words
3. motoric representations - memories stored as actions eg. swinging a tennis racquet
Discuss the standard model of memory.
* stimuli enters the sensory registers (some info is lost)
* Info passed to STM (some info is lost, rehearsal occurs to keep it there)
* Info passed to LTM (some info is lost)
* Info is retrieved from LTM into STM
Discuss the sensory registers in the SMM.
- Holds info for a fraction of a second after the stimuli disappears
- Every sensory system has a sensory register
Iconic storage = visual info
Echoic storage = auditory info
What is the storage capacity of the sensory register in the SMM?
25+ stimuli (quite large)
How long is info stored in the sensory registers in the SMM?
0.25 seconds - 2 seconds
What info from the sensory registers moves to the STM in the SMM?
Information that has been attended to
What is the capacity and duration of info held in the STM in the SMM?
Capacity - small, 7 items and 2 more sometimes
Duration - 20-30 seconds
What is Maintenance rehearsal, in relation to STM in the SMM?
Keeping info in the STM for longer by using techniques such as chanting a phone number.
What is the duration of information in the LTM in the SMM?
What is the process of extracting information from the LTM called in the SMM?
What does the serial position curve of LTM indicate?
Primacy and recency effects - Information learned early on will be remembered more than info in the middle of a sequence.
How are primacy and recency accounted for during experiments?
By administering a distraction task before recall.
Discuss the evolution of memory theory.
Rather than a SMM, memory is thoight to be comprised of modules that are interdependent yet discrete.
Memory is no longer likened to...
the processing of a computer.
Baddely and Hitch suggested that working memory is comprised of...
3 memory systems
In working memory, the visual store is independent of the...
Discuss the 3 working memory systems.
1. Central executive - controls flow and processing of info
2. Visual memory store - temporary image (20-30 secs), stores info about location and nature of objects
3. Verbal memory store - storage of verbal items, limited capacity.
The SMM involving STM and LTM has been replaced by...
The concept of working memory involving 3 memory systems.
The visual memory in WM is also called the...
The verbal memory in WM is also called the...
What part of the brain directs WM?
the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus
what physical evidence exists to prove that the visual and verbal memory stores operate independently?
They activate different cortical regions of the brain
There is evidence to support a distinction between working memroy and...
In the case of Henry (H.M), what procedure was performed and what was the effect on memory?
His corpus collosum was severed to treat severe epilepsy.
He was unable to transfer info from STM to LTM.
What do we us to increase our memory capacity?
Mneumonic devices like chunking/acronyms
What 2 types of information are stored in LTM?
Declarative memory - facts and events
- semanic (general world knowdledge/facts
- episodic (memory of events, autobiographical)
Proedural memory - skills and proceudres ('how to')
What are the 2 ways of expressing knowledge from LTM and their subsets?
Expicit memory - conscious recollection of info eg. shoe size (through direct recall or recognition)
Implicit memory - expressed in behaviour but not necessarily conscious eg. driving
What parts of the brain are involved in LTM?
Frontal lobes (working, procedural, episodic memory)
Amygdala (emotional memory)
What is encoding in relation to LTM?
Converting information into a representational form.
What is the difference between shallow and deep processing in rekation to LTM?
Shallow processing - focuses on physical characteristics
Deep processing - focuses on meaning
What is the encoding specificity principle?
The ease of retrieval depends on the match between the way information was encoded and how it is later retrieved.
What is the principle of context dependent memory?
Information is easier to recall when retrieved within the dame context that it was encoded.
What is the principle of mood (state) congruent memory?
Information is easier to recall when retrieved in the same emotional state as when it was encoded
What is the spacing effect in relation to LTM?
More information is recalled correctly when retrieved every 56 days, when compared to every 14 or 28 days.
How do mneumonic devices enhance memory?
State 2 examples?
They add additional cues for retrieval.
1. method of loci - uses visual imagery to aid memory
2. SQ-IR method - textbook memory aid (survey, question, read, recite, review)
What is the semantic network model of LTM?
Network of connected nodes in clusters.
What is hierarchical storage?
Nodes in LTM contain broad categories that then contain narrower categories.
How do schemas affect the way people remember?
They influence the way info is encoded.
They shape the way info is reconstructed.
eg. items in a photo of an office - people remember things that are in their office and even things that are not in the photo but in their office.
How is the influence of schemas important in law?
In eyewitness testimonies - our schemas influence our reconstructive memory.
- Leading questions can change our recall (eg. a/the broken tail light)
What are the 7 sins of memory?
1. Transcience - fading memory over time
2. Absent-mindedness - not paying attention
3. Misattribution -source amnesia
4. Suggestibility - Thinking we remember things
5. Bias - Distortons in recall
6. Persistence - Recurring memories
7. Forgetting - inability to remember
What is decay theory?
memory fades with disuse
What is interference theory?
A conflict between new and old memories
Proactive - old interferes with new
Retroactive - new interferes with old
What is motivational forgetting?
Forgetting can help us to avoid painful memories
What is anterograde amnesia?
The inability to retain new memories.
What is retrograde amnesia?
The inability to recall memories from before an accident/incident
What is Spreading Activation Theory?
Activation of one node in a network of association triggers activation in closely related nodes.
eg. tide - laundry detergent and moon, ocean, waves
What are flashbulb memories?
vivid memories of exciting or highly consequential events
In the modern view, memory consists of modules which operate...
What plays a reconstructive role in memory?
Most of the information that enters the sensory registers is...
lost or forgotten
What is the pattern of memory loss?
Memory loss is rapid at first, then takes on a logarithmic pattern. But with rehearsal, memories can last a lifetime.
What is semantic memory?
Part of declarative memory, general world knowledge ad facts.
What is retrospective memory?
Remembering things you did in the past (eg. what you had for dinner and what yo did after that)