Flashcards in Week 12: Thinking and Reasoning Deck (58):
Representations that describe, explain or predict how things work are called...
An abstraction across many instances of a category is a...
How do people construct a prototype in their minds?
They extract the most common important features of the object in a category (eg. 'bird' is an airbrushed photograph, rather than a specific type).
According to neuroimaging studies, categorising at a superordinate (more abstract) level uses what part of the brain?
left, prefrontal cortex
What part of the bran is activated when categorising at a subordinate level?
Right, prefrontal cortex and visual attentional circuits
What must we do before we can think about an object?
We must classify it (know what it is and what it does).
How do people typically classify objects?
By judging their similarity to prototypes (abstract representations of a category)
_____________ involve groupings based on common properties.
A ___________ is a mental representation of a category
At what level do people categorise more rapidly?
The basic level
How is the expected utility value computed?
By combining the weighted utility value (usefulness) and the expected probability of obtaining an outcome (likelihood).
What are heuristics?
Cognitive shortcuts for quickly selecting from alternatives.
What do heuristics (cognitive shortcuts) allow people to do?
Make rapid, efficient, but sometimes irrational judgements.
Thought processes in the brain are thought by psychologists to be...
Both distributed through large networks and localised to particular brain units.
One level more abstract that the basic level is the...
superordinate level, where objects share few common features.
What are cross-cultural universals?
People everywhere group things together because that is the nature of humans.
In addition to categorisation being cross-cultural, the way we categorise helps us to...
How can mental simulations be successful?
By visualising the steps involved in detail to achieve a successful outcome
Mental simulation is a...
problem solving strategy
Connectionism asserts that cognitive processes work...
simultaneously, through multiple activated networks
What role do motivation and emotion play in risk assessment?
They highlight the ambiguity surrounding risks (what is risky to someone seem to be as risky to another)
Why can people read handwriting rapidly and correctly?
Because of connectionism - simultaneous cognitive processes are occuring using multiple neural networks.
What is constraint satisfaction?
as many constraints are satisfied as possible to achieve the best fit to the data.
People are better off making decisions based on...
the bounds imposed by their environment, goals and abilities.
Satisfying and sufficing to make a quick decision is called...
The emotional gains and losses are ultimately asymmetrical. This is called...
According to prospect theory, we should be...
more willing to take a risk to avoid a loss than obtain a gain (because losses have greater emotional impacts than gains)
identifying an object as similar to some objects and dissimilar to others
In regards to mental images, people can think in...
Words or images
What relationship does 'motorcycle' have to 'vehicle'?
A subordinate relationship (more abstract than basic and superordinate, as the 2 share specific attributes)
Type of vehicle: basic
Mode of transport: superordinate
The bottom up approach, taking specific examples to form broader generalisations and theories is called...
Vague informatin and criteria result in an...
A systematic procedure used to solve a problem is called an...
Functional fixedness is...
the tendency to ignore other functions of an object because of fixed functions established in your mind (eg. a screwdriver as a hammer or inmates making weapons out of objects).
The ability to recognise that others have beliefs, feelings and thoughts different to ours is the...
Theory of mind
What are defining features?
The features of an object required to classify it
Objects that have properties that clearly set them apart from others have...
What are 2 common problem solving strategies?
Algorithms and mental simulations
Explicit cognition is...
the conscious manipulation of mental representations
Implicit cognition is...
cognition outside of our awareness (influenced by emotion, motivation etc)
Thought is an extension of...
perception and memory
The linguistic relativity hypothesis (Benjamin Whorf, 1940s) indicates that...
Thoughts are shaped by and constrained by language
Inductive reasoning relies heavily on...
Deductive reasoning draws conclusions from a set of...
assumptions, or syllogisms.
eg. all 30 yr old women are blonde.
Holly is a 30 year old woman
Holly is blonde
The process of understanding a novel situation in terms of a familiar one is called...
What are some examples of heuristics?
* Working backward
* Searching for analogies
* Mentally trying out solutions
* Breaking a large problem into smaller ones
The problem solving barrier called a Mental Set is...
using the same problem solving technique that worked previously but may not be useful now.
What is confirmational bias?
the tendency to search for information that we already believe in.
What are some faulty heuristics?
Availability heuristic - events that we can easily recall are common and typical (eg. lindt seige)
Representative heuristic - compulsively matching an object to its category
Rounded Reality - being rationa only within the bounds of your environment, gals and abilities.
What is parallel constraint satisfaction?
tendency to settle on a solution that satisfies as many constraints as possible and fits the data the best.
According to the Whorfian hypothesis of linguistic relativity, _______ shapes thought?
What is universal grammar?
Innate set of linguistic principles around the world.
What are the 2 views of categorisation?
People categorise objects rapidly by judging their
1. defining features
2. similarity to existing protoypes
In order to make a rational decision about which option to choose, you must compute WHICH value of each option before selecting the highest one?
Expected utility value
Categorisation in different cultures involves...
universals and culturally-influenced problem solving
Why can people read handwriting rapidly and correctly?
The nodes in the networks are set up to recognise handwriting more quickly.
At what level can motorcycle and vehicle be grouped together?
The 3rd level - the subordinate