Week 12: Thinking and Reasoning Flashcards Preview

CogBog Sem 1 End of Semester Exam > Week 12: Thinking and Reasoning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 12: Thinking and Reasoning Deck (58):
1

Representations that describe, explain or predict how things work are called...

Mental models

2

An abstraction across many instances of a category is a...

Prototype

3

How do people construct a prototype in their minds?

They extract the most common important features of the object in a category (eg. 'bird' is an airbrushed photograph, rather than a specific type).

4

According to neuroimaging studies, categorising at a superordinate (more abstract) level uses what part of the brain?

left, prefrontal cortex

5

What part of the bran is activated when categorising at a subordinate level?

Right, prefrontal cortex and visual attentional circuits

6

What must we do before we can think about an object?

We must classify it (know what it is and what it does).

7

How do people typically classify objects?

By judging their similarity to prototypes (abstract representations of a category)

8

_____________ involve groupings based on common properties.

Categories

9

A ___________ is a mental representation of a category

concept

10

At what level do people categorise more rapidly?

The basic level

11

How is the expected utility value computed?

By combining the weighted utility value (usefulness) and the expected probability of obtaining an outcome (likelihood).

12

What are heuristics?

Cognitive shortcuts for quickly selecting from alternatives.

13

What do heuristics (cognitive shortcuts) allow people to do?

Make rapid, efficient, but sometimes irrational judgements.

14

Thought processes in the brain are thought by psychologists to be...

Both distributed through large networks and localised to particular brain units.

15

One level more abstract that the basic level is the...

superordinate level, where objects share few common features.

16

What are cross-cultural universals?

People everywhere group things together because that is the nature of humans.

17

In addition to categorisation being cross-cultural, the way we categorise helps us to...

solve problems

18

How can mental simulations be successful?

By visualising the steps involved in detail to achieve a successful outcome

19

Mental simulation is a...

problem solving strategy

20

Connectionism asserts that cognitive processes work...

simultaneously, through multiple activated networks

21

What role do motivation and emotion play in risk assessment?

They highlight the ambiguity surrounding risks (what is risky to someone seem to be as risky to another)

22

Why can people read handwriting rapidly and correctly?

Because of connectionism - simultaneous cognitive processes are occuring using multiple neural networks.

23

What is constraint satisfaction?

as many constraints are satisfied as possible to achieve the best fit to the data.

24

People are better off making decisions based on...

the bounds imposed by their environment, goals and abilities.

25

Satisfying and sufficing to make a quick decision is called...

satisfycing

26

The emotional gains and losses are ultimately asymmetrical. This is called...

Prospect theory.

27

According to prospect theory, we should be...

more willing to take a risk to avoid a loss than obtain a gain (because losses have greater emotional impacts than gains)

28

Categorisation is...

identifying an object as similar to some objects and dissimilar to others

29

In regards to mental images, people can think in...

Words or images

30

What relationship does 'motorcycle' have to 'vehicle'?

A subordinate relationship (more abstract than basic and superordinate, as the 2 share specific attributes)
Type of vehicle: basic
Mode of transport: superordinate

31

The bottom up approach, taking specific examples to form broader generalisations and theories is called...

Inductive reasoning

32

Vague informatin and criteria result in an...

ill-defined problem

33

A systematic procedure used to solve a problem is called an...

algorithm

34

Functional fixedness is...

the tendency to ignore other functions of an object because of fixed functions established in your mind (eg. a screwdriver as a hammer or inmates making weapons out of objects).

35

The ability to recognise that others have beliefs, feelings and thoughts different to ours is the...

Theory of mind

36

What are defining features?

The features of an object required to classify it

37

Objects that have properties that clearly set them apart from others have...

well-defined features

38

What are 2 common problem solving strategies?

Algorithms and mental simulations

39

Explicit cognition is...

the conscious manipulation of mental representations

40

Implicit cognition is...

cognition outside of our awareness (influenced by emotion, motivation etc)

41

Thought is an extension of...

perception and memory

42

The linguistic relativity hypothesis (Benjamin Whorf, 1940s) indicates that...

Thoughts are shaped by and constrained by language

43

Inductive reasoning relies heavily on...

probablility

44

Deductive reasoning draws conclusions from a set of...

assumptions, or syllogisms.
eg. all 30 yr old women are blonde.
Holly is a 30 year old woman
Holly is blonde

45

The process of understanding a novel situation in terms of a familiar one is called...

analogical reasoning

46

What are some examples of heuristics?

* Working backward
* Searching for analogies
* Mentally trying out solutions
* Breaking a large problem into smaller ones

47

The problem solving barrier called a Mental Set is...

using the same problem solving technique that worked previously but may not be useful now.

48

What is confirmational bias?

the tendency to search for information that we already believe in.

49

What are some faulty heuristics?

Availability heuristic - events that we can easily recall are common and typical (eg. lindt seige)
Representative heuristic - compulsively matching an object to its category
Rounded Reality - being rationa only within the bounds of your environment, gals and abilities.

50

What is parallel constraint satisfaction?

tendency to settle on a solution that satisfies as many constraints as possible and fits the data the best.

51

According to the Whorfian hypothesis of linguistic relativity, _______ shapes thought?

Language

52

What is universal grammar?

Innate set of linguistic principles around the world.

53

What are the 2 views of categorisation?

People categorise objects rapidly by judging their
1. defining features
2. similarity to existing protoypes

54

In order to make a rational decision about which option to choose, you must compute WHICH value of each option before selecting the highest one?

Expected utility value

55

Categorisation in different cultures involves...

universals and culturally-influenced problem solving

56

Why can people read handwriting rapidly and correctly?

The nodes in the networks are set up to recognise handwriting more quickly.

57

At what level can motorcycle and vehicle be grouped together?

The 3rd level - the subordinate

58

What type of reasoning works from observation to form conclusions?

Inductive reasoning