Flashcards in WEEK OF MARCH 26th, PART I – ROW FRAMES PART II – AUC'S #266, 351 & 338 PART III – TB – EMERGENCIES 2 (GAS) PART IV – TB – SCBA ADD #8 (PAK TRACKER) INSTRUCTOR: DC John Esposito Deck (63):
1. All members should know the construction features of Row Frame buildings. An instructor in Proby School made several comments about Row Frame buildings, which is incorrect? (5.1.1-5.1.3)
A. Their height varies from 2 to 5 stories.
B. They may have a stoop similar to brownstones but made of wood
C. Although light shafts are usually present, dumbwaiter shafts are not found in these buildings.
D. These buildings can be either balloon frame or braced frame construction
5.1.1 These buildings, as the name implies, are built in rows containing as many as
twenty or more buildings. They vary in height from two to five stories, are
twenty to thirty feet in width, with depths ranging from forty to sixty feet. When
constructed, each builder may have used varying designs, i.e., with stoop similar
to brownstones but all wood; with or without cornices. They were constructed
over a period of many years in the 1800's and early 1900's. Many are found
throughout the city.
5.1.2 The room arrangement will vary with design of building.
A. One type is similar to the Brownstone layout of rooms. They generally
have three front windows per floor with one apartment going front to rear
and no rear fire escape (See Figures 11 & 11A).
B. Another type is the railroad flat with two apartments per floor. They
generally have four windows across the front, with a rear fire escape (see
Figures 12 & 12A). The depth of the building will determine the size and
number of rooms.
1. There may be a dumbwaiter shaft present.
2. The presence of light shafts is also a possibility (See Figure 12A).
5.1.3 These buildings can be either balloon frame or braced frame construction.
(See Figures 9 & 10)
When members size-up a Row Frame they may be able to determine the floor layout by the number of front windows per floor. Which is the correct statement? (5.1.2 fig 12A)
a. Three windows in the front generally indicate a rear fire escape.
B. Three windows in the front indicate one apartment per floor on each side of the building.
c. Three windows in the front indicates the stairway is adjacent to one of the side walls of the building
d. Four windows in the front usually indicate separate front and rear apartments on each floor
3. Fire easily extends in row frames buildings and members studying should be aware of all the potential avenues of fire travel. Which statement made during drill is not accurate? (5.2.1-5.2.9)
A. The common cockloft spreads over all buildings in a row and is 2’ to 3’ deep.
B. Light and airshafts are of wood construction and are found in some of these buildings.
C. Division walls between buildings do not adequately prevent fire extension.
D. Although a cockloft may have fire stopping, fire may still extend via a common cornice
4. You are the incident commander at an extending cockloft fire in a row of row frame buildings. You have already transmitted a second alarm and have special called additional Battalion Chiefs. Since there are four units operating on the roof you have designated a Battalion Chief as Roof Sector Supervisor. Which is an incorrect action in this situation? (14.1)
A. All units were notified the Roof Sector was established.
B. Units were also informed of the identity of the Roof Sector Supervisor
C.The units now assigned to the Roof Sector were notified
D. The Roof Sector Supervisor will report to the incident commander or the supervisor of the Fire Sector, if established
5. The first arriving Battalion Chief must determine if sufficient resources are on scene to control conditions encountered. Consider the following statements: (14.6)
1. When a floor is fully involved from front to rear an extra engine and ladder must be special called
2. When a top floor fire has extended to the cockloft a second alarm should be considered
3. A 2nd alarm should be transmitted for fire in two buildings
4. When the fire extends past 2 buildings a 3rd alarm must be considered How many are correct?
a. 1 6. b. 2 c. 3 d. 4
6. During drill with a detailed chauffeur from a Tower Ladder, the members of Ladder 139 (an aerial ladder) were discussing the first to arrive aerial ladder chauffeur’s duties at a row frame fire. Which statement is incorrect regarding this ladder company position? (9 D)
a. After Roof FF has reached the roof, the aerial should not be repositioned prior to roof sizeup completion unless the fire is on the 3rd floor or above and a four window front
b. The aerial is not repositioned prior to completion of roof size-up for a three window front.
c. Generally the window over the main entrance (on all upper floors) is the best option for VES by the LCC
d.The OV may assist the LCC with VES on the top floor if unable to enter for search in the rear
5. Generally, the window over the main entrance opens into one small room
(on all upper floors). The other two windows open into a large room
which originally, and in many cases still is, connected railroad fashion to
other rooms deeper in the building. It is best to select one of these
windows for VEIS, instead of the window over the main entrance.
7. Company Officers expect their members to complete assignments and be at their proper positions. Which statement about row frame ladder company positions made by the Lieutenant that’s been covering for 6 years is correct? (P.45) a. Access to roof is the following priority order: aerial ladder, adjacent building, fire escape (if present)
B.1st to arrive Roof FF brings Halligan, 6’ Halligan hook, and LSR to roof
C. Immediately check the rear for presence of trapped occupants
D. Venting of the skylight and draftstop is completed immediately after determining presence of fire escape
9. A newly promoted Lieutenant was conducting drill on Tower Ladder operations at row frame fires and made the following statements. Which point is incorrect when a Tower Ladder is first to arrive? (Sec 11)
a. After completion of roof size up, the OV will reposition the basket to the fire floor for ventilation only
b. The saw and life saving rope are brought to the roof in the basket if basket used for roof access.
c. The Roof FF may perform outside ventilation of the fire apartment from the fire escape.
D. The second LCC will team up with the first LCC to perform VES of the top floor
10. Which firefighter position/tool assignment is not correct for the scenario given in a row frame? (10.1 F, 10.3, p.43)
A. Top floor fire, 4 window front, 2nd OV to roof with LSR and hook.
B. The 2nd Roof brings saw to roof for top floor fire
C. The 1st LCC using aerial to VES fire floor for 2nd floor fire in four window front
D. OV is on the fire escape for a fire on 3rd floor of a three window front 4-story row frame
10. A, C
11. Units arrive at a heavy fire condition in a vacant 4 story row frame in a row of occupied frames. Which actions are correct? (13.6) 1. 2. 3. a. The first engine drops 2 handlines The first handline was stretched to extinguish the fire since it was heavy The second handline was stretched to back-up the first line since it was a heavy fire condition. Only 1 b. 1 and 2 c. 2 and 3 d. None
A. Vacant Buildings in a Row of Occupied Frames
1 The first to arrive engine company should drop two hoselines: one a 3 1⁄2"
line to supply a TL, and a hoseline to enter the most severe exposure.
2. First hoseline
First hoseline is stretched to most severe exposure.
3. Second hoseline
If not needed to back up the first hoseline, shall be stretched to the fire
building or to the opposite exposure.
4. Third hoseline
Stretched to the fire building or to the opposite exposure, depending on
where the second hoseline was stretched.
5. Fourth hoseline
As ordered by the Incident Commander.
12. You are a Lieutenant of the second arriving engine company at a fully involved occupied row frame with fire in the occupied exposures. You observed the following actions; which is correct? (13.4)
A. The first engine dropped two 1 ¾” handlines
B. The first line was stretched into the most severe exposure
C. This is a defensive operation, members should not enter the fire building
D. The first engine stretched a supply line for a tower ladder even if the tower ladder is not on the scene
8. Which statement made during MUD about the OV position and tool assignments at row frame fires is not correct? (p. 42 & 43)
A.1st OV brings a saw and halligan to the roof for top a floor fire. B. When the OV sees a trapped person from the rear yard on an upper floor with no fire escape, after making required notifications, he must immediately commence a rescue operation.
c. If no rear rescue is needed and the OV is able to enter for search, he/she shall perform VES only if teamed up with another member.
d. After going to the roof for a top floor fire the OV should descend the rear fire escape for VES, if possible
13. You are the 10-75 Chief for a medium cellar fire in a row frame that is confined to the cellar area; you should know that units operated correctly in which action? (13.2)
a. The first line was stretched through the outside cellar entrance since is provided direct access to the fire and all units were notified b. The second line was immediately stretched to the top floor of the fire building.
c. The second engine company was teamed with the first engine to stretch and operate the first line
d. The third line was stretched to cover possible extension to the first floor
14. During drill with the new Proby on roof characteristics of a row frame the topic of the scuttle was discussed. Which statements by the Proby are correct? (5.2.7, p.44, 46)
A. Opening the scuttle will always allow smoke to vent from the top floor
B. The scuttle is usually near the skylight over the stairs
C. Scuttle ladders are often not in good shape or may be missing
D. The scuttle opening is narrow and difficult to move through with a mask and LSR
E. The cover is often locked, chained or tarred over.
F. The Roof FF may descend the scuttle ladder after the is fire was under control
G. All skylights are vented prior to opening the roof scuttle opening
15. You are a newly promoted Battalion Chief and you respond to a lower floor fire in a four window front row frame. The Roof FF reports there is no roof level skylight. The Roof FF would be correct if she? (P. 47)
A. Descended the rear fire escape to VES top floor with the 1st OV B. Notified the incident commander of the situation and called for a saw
C. Teamed up with an available member to VES from the top floor D. Opened the scuttle returns to vent the top floor
Note: Roof firefighters should be aware that they are the eyes of the
Incident Commander as far as roof level size up is concerned.
Report initial size up and any important additional information as it
develops, such as penthouse structures, or the inability to ventilate
the interior stairs due to either there being no skylight or tarred
over roof skylights. (A saw must be called for in these instances)
16. Top floor fires in row frames have the potential to spread quickly. Which statement concerning roof cutting operations is incorrect? (F 11 p. 47, 50)
A. At top floor fires, the top floor windows should be vented prior to cutting and pulling the roof
B. After the initial vent hole is cut and opened, the original hole should be enlarged to provide more effective ventilation.
C. The hole should be cut directly over the fire
D. The 1st Roof FF cuts the roof after completing initial roof duties. E. Do not make examination holes in any returns of exposures, doing so will spread fire in the cockloft
17. You are a Lieutenant working a day tour in Ladder 2. You have been relocated to Queens and assigned as an extra Truck for an All-Hands fire in a row frame building. Upon arrival at the command post the incident commander assigns your unit to the roof sector and informs you Battalion 59 is the sector supervisor. In this situation which is an incorrect action? (14.1, 14.4, 14.5)
A. Small examination holes were cut in the roof of the fire building until the top floor ceilings could be pulled
B. You reported the completion of your assignment to Battalion 59 C. You ordered your members not to use the rear fire escape since you doubted its stability
18. You are a Captain in the Battalion Chief’s Command Course and are discussing line placement in various row frame fire scenarios. Which of the following is an incorrect statement? (13.5, 13.6) a. The first handline for a fire in a row of vacant frames is eventually stretched into the most severe exposure b. A 2 ½” line was stretched to the exterior at a row frame and took a purely defensive position c. Aside from the life hazard the greatest problem at row frame fires is vertical fire extension in void spaces d. Occupied exposures with a fire condition are given priority over heavily involved vacant buildings
1. Many transformers throughout the city were previously cooled with liquids containing PCBs. Which is an incorrect statement about these coolants listed on the “FDNY Hazardous Substance Lists”? AUC 266 (5.2.1)
A. The PCB level was listed as “0” for an oil coolant; this indicates there are no PCBs.
B. The PCB level was blank; this should be treated as a PCB contaminated transformer.
C. A transformer cooled by air should be treated as a PCB contaminated transformer
D. If “U.O.” is listed as the coolant; the transformer should be assumed to be a PCB transformer
Air" - A transformer cooled by air not a liquid, hence will not contain PCB
2. The EPA classifies PCB transformers by the amount of PCBs present. Which is correct about these classifications? AUC 266 (3.1)
A. A transformer must have 0 ppm of PCB to be considered a “Non-PCB” transformer.
B. If the transformer has any level of PCB it is considered a “PCB” transformer
C. Transformers with any level of PCB in NYC must be registered with the FDNY
D. A transformer with 400 ppm PCB doesn’t require a marking by the EPA
> 500 ppm requires marking
3. While working your first tour as a covering Lieutenant in Engine 19 the Postal Service delivers an envelope to the firehouse that contains PCB transformer registration information. Which is a correct action for you to take? AUC 266 3.1. 2
A. Forward to the administrative Battalion
B. Forward to the administrative Division
C. Forward to the Toxic Substance Unit
D. File in the proper building record folder after completing a CIDS entry
3.1.2 3.2 Registration Regulations All "PCB TRANSFORMERS" must be registered with the "Fire Department which would be called upon for the initial response to a fire involving this equipment." This regulation is nation wide and as such was written with this in mind. In NYC it has resulted in some confusion. Field units have received or may receive transformer registration information. The law’s intent is that the central authority (headquarters) of a Fire Department receive the necessary information not a local fire house. Hence any unit receiving transformer registrations or when asked by transformer owners as to where to send registrations shall direct that they be sent to: Toxic Substance Unit, Bureau of Fire Prevention, NYC Fire Department, 9 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, New York, 11201. Proof of registration with F.D.N.Y. for transformer owners will only come from the Toxic Substance Unit. As the information becomes available field units will receive these transformer locations via "AUC 266 Hazardous Substance Lists." Registration information is to include 1. 2. 3. 4. Address(s) of building(s), for outdoor "PCB TRANSFORMERS", the location of the outdoor substation. The physical location of the "PCB TRANSFORMER(S)" on the building site(s). The principal constituent of the dielectric fluid in the transformer(s) (e.g. PCBs, mineral oil). The name and telephone number of the person to contact in the event of a fire involving the equipment
4. You arrive at the scene of a transformer leaking oil. There is no fire but a witness reports the transformer made a loud bang. Which action is incorrect? Sec 6
A.Assume the oil contains PCBs
B. If transformers must be deactivated, this may be performed by Con Ed personnel or FDNY members as directed by engineering personnel.
c. If a member was possibly exposed to the oil they must be examined by an FDNY medical officer
D. A foam line may be used to extinguish flammable liquids.
E. SCBA shall be used until the IC confirms the area is free of toxic gases
Deactivation of transformers shall be performed only by Con Edison Personnel or Engineering Personnel of the .premises familiar with procedure. No member of this department shall attempt deactivation by direction or upon instruction of engineering personnel
6.4.3 Proper extinguishing methods must be used according to the properties of the involved materials. A. B. Fog or foam for flammable liquids. Water for structural members
5. You are the Battalion Chief in command of operations at an in-ground transformer fire. Several members have been possibly exposed to PCBs, which is an incorrect action?
A. Confine the members to a designated area
B. Members shall be decontaminated
C. Members shall be examined by a Medical Officer
D. The OSHA Unit will only respond to a PCB incident with levels higher than 500 ppm
6.4.11 Members exposed or possibly exposed: A. Shall be confined to a designated area until decontaminated. B. C. Shall be decontaminated along with their equipment as outlined in HMO2. Shall be examined by a Medical Officer
Decontamination procedures outlined in the ERP shall be implemented when members are exposed to PCBs of? (Sec 8)
A. Any amount
B. 10 ppm
C. 35 ppm
D. 50 ppm
1. The use of photovoltaic electrical systems has become increasingly popular. What is the greatest hazard of these systems? AUC 351 (2.1)
A. Collapse potential of roof system due to increased roof load
B. Direct current shock
C. Deteriorating conditions on top floor due to inability to vent roof d. Radiation exposure from photovoltaic system components
2. During drill on AUC 351 the newly promoted Captain made the following statements, which is the only true statement? AUC 351 (2.1, 2.2, 6.1)
A. PV systems produce electricity 24 hours a day.
B. Electricity can still be produced on cloudy days.
C. Residential and commercial systems are generally the same size and have the same safety features.
D. The only isolation switch is required to be located adjacent to the main electrical panel
Both residential and commercial solar photovoltaic systems operate on the same principle and both pose similar dangers, the greatest hazard of which is direct current (DC) shock. The residential system generally is smaller and may contain fewer safety features than the larger commercial system
PV systems can still produce electricity on cloudy days, but not as much as they do on sunny days. PV systems do not produce electricity at night
Shutting off power at the main electrical panel, does not ensure that all power to the building has been removed. This holds true for opening PV disconnect (isolation) switches which can be located: on the roof, next to the main electrical panel, adjacent to the inverter, nearby the charge controller, in the battery bank area, and outside the building
3. Photovoltaic systems can be either of two types. Which is an incorrect statement? AUC 351 (4.1, 4.2)
A. The stand-alone systems operate independent of the utility grid and have storage batteries.
B. On-grid systems are integrated with the public utility and also may store power.
C. Safety features automatically shut off the grid-tie inverters during a blackout to prevent back-feeding the public grid and endangering utility workers.
D. Stand-alone systems generate power that may augment the public utility grid
4. The roof systems necessary for the operation of the photovoltaic systems fall into three categories; which is an incorrect statement? AUC 351 (5.1, 5.2, 5.3)
A. The stand-mount is a light-weight system affixed directly to the roof deck.
B. Flush-mounted arrays are installed several inches off the surface; they are commonly used on peaked roofs.
C. Integrated arrays serve as structural elements which reduce concentrations of added weight.
D. Integrated and flush-mounted arrays may be impossible to detect during nighttime hours
5. ROOF INSTALLATIONS
5.1 Stand-mounted (Figure 5) Stand-mounts are bulky and constructed with a grid-like system of supports (aluminum or steel) that are affixed directly to roof joists using metal hardware. Non-penetrating ballast (concrete block) trays are an alternative stand-mount option. Stand-mounted equipment is also known as a universal mounting because it can be installed both on rooftops as well as on the ground. Stand-mount systems atop roofs must be installed to withstand wind loads. They are typically used with larger solar panel systems. 5.2 5.3 Flush-mounted (Figure 6) Flush-mounted PV arrays are achieved by placing a metal end bracket on each side of the module and elevating it just several inches from the surface to allow for cooling air circulation. The bracket is then attached to the roof. They are commonly used with small solar arrays and on peaked roofs because the structural design cannot support large ones. Integrated design (Figure 7) Integrated PV arrays serve as a structural element (roof, wall, canopy or skylight). It thereby reduces concentrations of added weight and avoids penetrations required for mountings and wiring. It also reduces the vulnerability of the equipment to high winds. The photovoltaic shingle, made to look like conventional asphalt shingles, is one such technology. The development of “thin-film” photovoltaics has also led to the increased use of integrated design. Integrated, as well as flush-mounted arrays, may be difficult or impossible to detect during nighttime hours
6. You are a Battalion Chief responding to an All-Hands fire in a 6-story NLT with photovoltaic modules on the roof. The fire is on the top floor and the first arriving units are operating in a heavy smoke condition. Which is an incorrect statement or action? AUC 351 (6.2, 6.3, 6.7)
A. Firefighters were directed not to remove any PV modules
B. There should not be any roof ventilation on roofs where a PV system is installed
C. Horizontal ventilation should be a prime focus of ladder company operations
D. Ventilation fans should be used only after the fire has been extinguished
E. Foam may be used on battery fires
The opening/removal of skylights and scuttles as well as horizontal ventilation should be the prime focus of ladder company operations
7. Fire operations frequently occur at night. Which is incorrect about PV arrays at night? AUC 351 (top p. 6, 8.1)
A. Lightening may energize the PV system
B.Apparatus headlights are not powerful enough to generate dangerous voltage
C. All electrical conduits leading away from the PV system should be located prior to extinguishment
D. Auxiliary apparatus lights will energize the PV system with dangerous voltage
8. You are a Lieutenant performing BISP when you discover a PV system. You would be incorrect to perform which action? Zanuck 351 (8.3)
a. If the system is imminently perilous to occupants due to its location, request the response of the Buildings Department and a Battalion Chief
b. Enter the building into CIDS and include location of PV disconnects
c. Attempt to obtain the installers phone number for the CIDS entry
1. FDNY units may, at times, apply water to electrical components at burning Con Ed facilities. What is the goal of applying water in such a circumstance? AUC 338 2.1
A.To extinguish the burning oil
B. To protect FDNY members conducting a search of the facility
C. To protect the burning equipment
D. To protect exposed equipment
The FDNY will be called on to operate at fires involving transformers and other electrical components at Con Edison facilities. If electrical equipment in proximity to the burning equipment is damaged due to exposure to flames or heat, catastrophic damage could occur and jeopardize the electrical supply to large geographical areas of the city. The purpose of applying water streams to exposed electrical components is to prevent collateral damage to the surrounding equipment. Electrical equipment that is or has been involved in fire has no useful value and is replaced by Con Edison. The priority of water stream application is to minimize damage to unaffected adjoining components. Handlines shall never be used on energized electrical components at Con Edison facilities
2. You are a Ladder company Lieutenant that has been ordered to set up a master stream to apply water at a Con Ed substation fire with live electrical equipment. You would be correct to agree with all but which of the following statements? AUC 338 (5.4, 5.5, 7.3, 7.6)
a. The primary means of applying water is via a tower ladder with either the stacked tips or Turbomaster nozzle
b. If use of a tower ladder is not possible and the ladder pipe on an aerial is employed, the Aquastream Master nozzle should be used. c. No foam of any type shall be used in this situation.
D. Salt water shall not be used, only fresh water shall be applied to live electrical components
NOTE: The Aquastream Master Stream Nozzle carried by all Aerial Ladder and Engine Companies is factory pre-set to a fog stream pattern of 130 degrees. This nozzle shall not be used because it does not provide enough stream penetration to allow for maintaining safe operating distances
3. After approval is granted to apply water on electrical equipment several restrictions are required. Which is an improper action? AUC 338 (5.6.1, 7.1, 7.8)
a. All FDNY equipment inside the Con Ed property line should be grounded prior to application of water
b. The nearest available Rescue Company shall be special called to connect their grounding cables to the facility grid.
c. FDNY personnel shall never enter the inside of a Con Ed generating facility unless escorted by qualified Con Ed personnel d. Fog streams may be affected by wind conditions; in these cases a solid stream or a straight stream with a fog tip with increased standoff distances is preferable
5.6.1 Confirm all FDNY equipment inside the Con Edison property line is connected to the facility’s station ground grid prior to applying water. Con
4. You are a recently promoted Battalion Chief working in the 9th Battalion when you receive a phone call from the supervisor of the local Con Ed generating station looking for information about the “White hat” decal. Which is an incorrect statement about FDNY procedures at Con Ed generating stations? (Add 1, 1.4, 2, 3) a. A Battalion Chief from the administrative Battalion shall choose the location for placement of the decal b. The FDNY incident commander is not required to remain at the “White Hat” rendezvous point during an emergency. c. Any requests for familiarization or multi-unit drills shall be processed through the Public Transportation Safety Unit in Operations. d. The location of the “White Hat” decal may be a considerable distance from the street address of the facility
5. During drill a Lieutenant was discussing the electrical substations located throughout Con Ed’s distribution area. The Lieutenant was correct is all but which statement? (Add #2: 1.1, 2.3, 2.4, 6) a. Some substation structures are designed to mimic neighboring buildings and may not be readily identified as electrical substations b. Capacitors pose little threat after power has been removed c. Typically, two battery rooms containing as many as 60 batteries each are present at transmission and distribution substations d. Ground level electrical hazards are fenced-in behind locked doors and gates
6. These substations contain a large number of potentially deadly hazards. Consider the following statements: (Add #2 3.1-3.5, 6)
1. PCBs may still be found in some transformers.
2. Some PCB capacitor banks are still part of the transmission system.
3. Members must maintain an 18-foot safe clearance horizontally from the station’s exterior fence line.
4. Always operate as if PCBs are present.
5. Do not bring metal tools into a substation, instead use tools that will not conduct high voltages such as wooden hooks.
Which are the correct choices?
a. 1, 2, 4 b. 1, 3, 4 c. 2, 4, 5 d. 3, 4, 5
Avoid bringing metal tools into the substation and do not allow any tools to project
above your shoulder. Also, wood or fiberglass hooks can conduct high voltages
found in substations.
You are a Lieutenant in Engine 101 and you arrive at a fire in a Con Ed substation, which of the following actions is not in accord with FDNY procedures? (5.1- 5.5)
Prior to arrival of the Con Ed “White Hat” you ordered your unit to stretch and operate a handline to protect exposed buildings around the substation.
Upon any indication of fire, a 3 ½” supply line shall be stretched to the sprinkler siamese and charged.
A small fire in the capacitor bank may be extinguished with a dry chemical extinguisher
Water may be used to extinguish a battery room fire
A 3½” supply line shall be stretched, but not charged, to the sprinkler siamese if present.
If requested by Con Edison White Hat, supply the siamese with water at the posted
pressure. Sprinklers if present protect only the transformers
Which of the following is not a characteristic of natural gas? (sec. 2)
Lighter than air
Natural gas is delivered throughout the City at different pressures in various types of piping. Consider the following statements (4, 5)
Natural gas is regulated to 300 psi in the transmission mains.
High-pressure distribution mains run under the street and regulate the pressure down to 160 psi.
Medium pressure mains are only cast iron or plastic and have pressures between 3psi and 15psi
High and medium pressure gas is regulated down to ¼ psi before it passes through the customer’s meter
Gas service piping can be steel, plastic or copper but only steel or copper gas pipes are allowed inside structures.
Which are the correct statements?
1, 3, 4
2, 3, 5
Natural gas is delivered via pipeline to New York City at approximately 700 to 1400 psi.
It is regulated down to 300 psi for transmission gas mains and regulated to lower
pressures for distribution mains. Distribution gas mains are run under the streets and
deliver either high pressure (60 psi), medium pressure (3 - 15 psi) or low pressure gas
(¼ psi). Gas service pipes branch off of these mains to deliver gas from the main to
individual customers. High and medium pressure gas is regulated down to ¼ psi before it
passes through the customer’s meter.
Gas meters are installed to measure the amount of gas used and may supply an entire building or a single occupancy. Which is a correct statement about natural gas meters and regulators? (sec. 6)
Gas meters supply gas to most customers at ¼ psi.
Most commercial occupancies receive gas at 1 to 3 psi.
The Peck vent is found on commercial gas service (high and low pressure)
If the regulator fails in a building with a Peck vent, the excess gas will be vented to the building’s interior
Gas meters can supply individual occupancies or entire buildings.
Gas meters supply gas to most customers at ¼ psi. Exception: A few commercial
customers receive gas at 1 to 3 psi.
Regulators are usually located before the gas meter on high and medium pressure
systems to reduce incoming gas pressure to ¼ psi or higher as in the exception above.
Peck Vent - found on high pressure services. If the regulator fails, this safety valve
vents excess gas to the exterior of the building. (Pictures 22, 22a)
For the majority of natural gas emergencies, the FDNY will use a shutoff to stop the flow of gas. Which is an incorrect statement about natural gas shut off valves? (sec. 7)
Most gas shutoffs are of the ¼ turn variety and are easily shut using the Halligan’s fork end.
If resistance is encountered, slightly force the valve since it may be “frozen” in place
The wing cock valve should be turned counter clockwise to close the valve
If the operating nut is parallel to the piping, the valve is open; perpendicular to the piping indicates closed.
You are the Lieutenant of Ladder Co. 139 and arrive first at a gas leak in 5-story multiple dwelling. As you enter the public hallway on the 4th floor you notice an odor of natural gas. When you enter the kitchen area of the caller’s apartment you encounter a defective stove causing the gas to leak. Which is the correct action in this situation? (7.1-7.3)
Immediately order the closing of the head of service valve located in the cellar just after the master meter.
Avoid shutting the master meter if possible; it is preferable to shut a gas riser valve closer to the leak if there is no appliance valve
Shut the appliance valve at the stove unless you have to move the appliance to get to it.
In some older high pressure gas service the meter valve may require 3 ½ to 4 turned to close and should be shut first when present.
The gas distribution system includes Street valves which are capable of isolating large sections of the gas main. Consider the following statements: (6, 7)
FDNY personnel may only operate street valves under extreme circumstances when ordered by the incident commander after consultation with utility supervisor.
Generally, closing a street valve will only stop the flow of gas to the closest customers.
Low pressure gas systems usually do not have street valves.
All valves found in the street are Street valves.
National Grid street valve covers may be round or square and come in a variety of sizes.
Which are the correct statements?
1, 2, 4 b. 1, 3, 5 c. 1, 3, 4 d. 2, 4, 5
You are the Lieutenant in charge of the first arriving Ladder Company to an accident at a construction site. Your unit is the only one on the scene, other companies are delayed responding. You observe a brick wall that has collapsed and a trench excavation with earth-moving equipment nearby. The foreman tells you that all his people are accounted for and no one is injured. You smell natural gas and confirm there is an uncontrolled natural gas leak. Which are the correct actions/statements? (5)
In the trench was a ruptured plastic gas pipe, you instructed your F/E Firefighter to fold the leaking pipe.
You special called a unit with a digital gas meter if one is not available at the scene.
In anticipation of shutting a curb valve you directed the OV to get the gas shut off keys which are two long poles, each with a uniquely shaped socket on one end.
Transmit a 10-75 and give proper description of the incident.
Notify incoming units of a safe staging area.
7. B D E
Some gas leaks are underground and difficult to locate. All of the following are correct except? (9, 10)
Natural gas leaking up through the soil may lose its odor and become undetectable without a combustible gas detector.
If a Star valve is present it should not be used, it is unreliable.
Nearby sewers and manholes should have readings taken if unable to locate an indoor leak
Cast iron pipes are brittle and may be undermined by rupture water mains; plastic and steel pipes do not have this same vulnerability
A burst water main can undermine and cause a break in underground gas piping.
Notify the gas utility of water main breaks.
o Cast iron pipe is brittle. A ruptured water main or excavation can undermine cast
iron pipe causing the pipe to crack from its own weight and leak.
o Steel and plastic gas lines can also be damaged by undermining.
You are the officer of the first arriving unit for a natural gas leak at the stove in a large H-type MD. You enter the apartment and discover the stove is defective and the gas needs to be stopped. Which one is an incorrect action/statement? (Sec 7)
The first option is to shut the appliance valve located at the rear of the stove.
The head of service valve, located where the gas service enters the building usually requires ¼ turn to shut off gas flow
Under no circumstances should the street valve be operated by FDNY personnel
If the curb valve is white, the members should be instructed not to use excessive force as the valve stops would be easily broken
CAUTION: Do not operate street valves except under extreme circumstances
and only upon direction of the Fire Department Incident Commander after
consultation with the utility representative supervisor.
You are the first arriving Engine Officer at an all-hands fire in a New Law tenement. After your company has knocked down the main body of fire the Truck pulls the ceiling and exposes fire that appears to be fed from a gas line in the ceiling. Which is an incorrect statement?
The fire should be immediately extinguished to prevent further extension
This may be an old gas line originally used for lighting that was sealed with wax
Direct vent boilers and water heaters may be found throughout the building and are vented directly to the exterior through a short length of pipe
Any window gas heating units in the fire apartment must have their gas supply shut down
While operating at a major outdoor gas leak your Extinguisher Firefighter relays the reading on her DCGI which is 20%. The Con Ed representative tells you the reading on his meter is 1%. From all the reading and training you’ve done you know which is correct in this situation?
You should disregard the FDNY DCGI reading since the meter is not calibrated daily.
You should disregard the Con Ed reading if another FDNY DCGI confirms the original 20% reading
You should rely on the FDNY reading since the DCGI indicates the presence of more gas than the Con Ed meter
You should rely on the Con Ed meter because it measures % of the lower explosive limit, which is different than the FDNY DCGI
You can rely on both readings because although they measure different values they indicate the same condition at this incident.
The FDNY uses three different meters to determine the presence of natural gas. During MUD these meters were being discussed. Which is the correct choice? (13 A, B, C)
The Digital Combustible Gas Indicator is carried by all Ladder and SOC companies and is usually the first meter available on scene.
The TIFF meter is carried by Battalions and Ladder companies and will beep when 10% of the LEL is reached.
The MSA Altair is carried by SOC Support Ladder Companies and has an oxygen sensor
The Digital Combustible Gas Indicator is calibrated to display the percentage of the lower explosive limit (LEL) of any flammable gas present
You are the Incident Commander at a major indoor gas leak. FDNY personnel are in the process of isolating and stopping the leak. Which is an incorrect statement? (p. 12, 13)
Do not pull the electric meter; to remove power to the building open the main circuit breaker.
At least three exposures on each side of the occupancies with positive gas readings must be examined for the presence of natural gas.
If possible, start venting at the upper levels of the building and work down to the first floor.
You directed a firefighter to stuff paper into the break of a low pressure gas pipe.
Although a Digital gas meter was available, you must special call a unit with an Altair digit gas meter if not already on the scene
Do not operate any of the building’s electrical switches or devices and make sure the
occupants do not operate switches or telephones.
Do not pull the electric meter or open a circuit breaker. If power must be cut to the
building, have it cut by the utility company at the pole or manhole.
o Find out if the building has emergency power before having the power cut.
While drilling on the procedure to remove manhole covers, the Lieutenant made the following statements. Which are incorrect? (p. 15)
Only round electric manhole covers may be pulled by FDNY personnel.
If necessary to remove a sewer manhole cover, FDNY members may do so with approval from the Chief on the scene.
The cover of an electric manhole that is issuing smoke under pressure may be pulled after it is found to be free of stray voltage.
The manhole hooks necessary to pull covers are carried by SOC Support Ladder Companies; they should be special called as needed.
14. C D
Round Manhole covers should be removed by two firefighters utilizing manhole
hooks. Battalion vehicles carry two manhole hooks for use in removing electric
DO NOT pull any electric manhole covers if there is a manhole fire in the area or
if a smoking or arcing is observed in an electric manhole or transformer vault.
Which of the following indicates a reading in the flammable range?
An FDNY combustible gas indicator that is clicking quickly
An FDNY digital combustible gas indicator at the indoor action level
An FDNY digital combustible gas indicator reading 40% of LEL
A utility company meter reading 5%
Which of the following are intrinsically safe? (Gas sec 9, 11, Tools 29)
TIF 8800 Combustible Gas Detector
FDNY thermal imaging camera
Non-FDNY issued flashlights
FDNY issued flashlights
Fire Department fans
a. 1, 4 b. 3, 4 c. 1, 2, 4 d. 1, 2 e. 2, 5
17. During a recent drill on the MSA Altair Digital Gas Meter the officer made the following comments. Which is the only correct statement? (Addendum #1)
a. The meter should be used to determine the oxygen level and the presence of various flammable gases.
b. The Haz Mat Battalion should be notified for a replacement meter which is issued on a one-for-one basis.
c. The MSA Altair Digital Gas Meter does not replace the existing TIFF meter since each meter possesses its own unique capabilities.
d. Questions concerning the operation of the MSA Altair Digital Gas Meter or operational procedures at natural gas incidents should be directed to the Meter Room at Haz Mat Operations.
3.1 Malfunction of the meter shall be reported to the Haz-Mat Operations meter room.
Meters are not to be sent through the bag for repair or replacement. Replacement meters
shall be issued by Haz Mat Operations on a one-for-one basis with the replacement meter
becoming the unit’s permanent meter. Units should not place identifying markings on
The PAK-Tracker has increased the capabilities of the FDNY; we are now able to be directed to a missing firefighter. Which units are assigned this new tool? (Select all that apply) (1.1)
All Battalion Chiefs
All Division Chief vehicles
All SOC Support Ladder Companies
All Rescue Companies
All Squad Companies
1. D, E
The PAK-Tracker is able to provide information for multiple SCBA PASS activations. Which is an incorrect statement concerning SCBA PASS activations? (5.2, 5.3)
The PAK-Tracker will display the unit and member’s assignment
Although only three SCBA identities are displayed at once although the unit can store more than 30
The most recent activation is always on the top line of the LCD display
When the PAK-Tracker is locked on a specific PASS signal it will not be able to receive any additional PASS alarm signals
5.3 The Pak-Tracker receiver can store up to 36 SCBA identities. The receiver’s LCD
display screen is large enough to display two lines of information. The Scroll button
enables viewing additional lines. If two PASS Alarms are activated then both SCBA
identities will display in the LCD screen. If a third PASS Alarm activates, then it will
show at the top of the LCD display screen and the first PASS identity will move off the
screen. When multiple PASS alarms are activated, the latest alarm received will be on
the top line of the LCD display. Use the left button to scroll and view all the SCBA
identities that have been transmitted.
Note: Downward pointing arrows displayed on the LCD screen indicate that more than
two PASS Alarms are activating.
You are a Lieutenant working your first tour and you arrive at a private dwelling cellar fire. During the operation a Mayday is transmitted and a PASS alarm activated in the cellar. The incident commander would be correct to order the PAK-Tracker utilized only by a member: (6.5)
Trained to utilize the tracking capability
Operating in the FAST unit
Operating in the FAST group
You are a Lieutenant working your first tour and you arrive at a private dwelling cellar fire. During the operation a Mayday is transmitted and a PASS alarm activated in the cellar. The incident commander would be correct to order the PAK-Tracker utilized only by a member: (6.5)
Trained to utilize the tracking capability
Operating in the FAST unit
Operating in the FAST group
You are a Battalion Chief commanding a fire in a large one-story commercial building. After the fire is knocked down you hear a muffled Mayday on the handie-talkie. After ascertaining and relaying necessary information, you organize a FAST Group consisting of the FAST Truck, the Rescue Company and a Battalion Chief. The Battalion Chief is the FAST Group supervisor, the Rescue Company Officer is designated the Firefighter Locator Officer and the FAST Truck Officer is designated the Firefighter Removal Officer. An SCBA PASS signal is received on the PAK-Tracker, who shall the member monitoring the PAK-Tracker immediately notify? (6.3)
FAST Truck Officer
Rescue Company Officer
Member monitoring the EFAS
FAST Group Supervisor
6.3 Once the Pak-Tracker receives a signal from a PASS, the member monitoring the Pak-
Tracker shall immediately notify the IC with the identity of the members unit and
You are a Battalion Chief supervising a familiarization drill on the PAK-Tracker. The Lieutenant conducting the drill made several statements about its use when searching for an activated PASS alarm. Which is the only correct statement? (7.6-7.9)
When searching begins, it is held horizontally at shoulder level out in front of the operating member.
Use a sweeping motion, very slowly in horizontal direction first
The member should not pause when searching with the PAK-Tracker, especially if multiple PASS activations are occurring
When entering a room and after sweeping horizontally, the member must then sweep vertically.
7.6 To begin searching, hold the Pak-Tracker horizontally at waist height out in front of
operating member. The row of LED’s and the numerical display on the Pak-Tracker
indicate the relative strength and approximate direction of the signal from the SCBA.
Pointing the Pak-Tracker in the direction of the strongest relative signal and moving in
that direction should lead to the activated SCBA. When the signal strength rises above
the 50% level, the row of LED’s will begin to light starting with Red at the bottom,
Yellow in the middle, and Green at the top.
7.7 The Pak-Tracker receiver averages four readings per second. When there are features
such as doors, hallways, openings, or windows, take readings at each feature to determine
a possible general direction for the signal.
7.8 Use the Pak-Tracker in a sweeping motion, very slowly in a horizontal direction first.
Sweep vertically if suspected that the signal may be coming from a higher or lower floor
in the building.
You are a Battalion Chief assigned as the FAST Group Supervisor tasked with locating a missing Firefighter. The SCBA PASS has been activated and the PAK-Tracker is being utilized. Which is an incorrect statement about the SCBA PASS signal? (7.10)
The signal will usually pass through wood
The signal will usually pass through light building materials
The signal will reflect and/or not penetrate glass
The signal will reflect and/or not penetrate concrete walls
7.10 The signal from the SCBA to the Pak-Tracker will usually pass through:
openings such as gaps, holes, stairways, windows, or elevator shafts
light building materials
The signal will reflect and/or not penetrate through:
metal, including structural framework
large metal objects
concrete walls or floors
brick or concrete block construction
Note: The signal will attempt to pass around these objects