WEEK OF SEPT 16th, 2013 PART I – LADDERS 3 (TENEMENTS) Pgs 1 – 35: PART II – FFP – VENTILATION: PART III – COMMUNICATIONS MANUAL CH. #8: PART IV – EVOLUTION 1A: INSTRUCTOR: BC GENE DITARANTO Flashcards Preview

Firetech > WEEK OF SEPT 16th, 2013 PART I – LADDERS 3 (TENEMENTS) Pgs 1 – 35: PART II – FFP – VENTILATION: PART III – COMMUNICATIONS MANUAL CH. #8: PART IV – EVOLUTION 1A: INSTRUCTOR: BC GENE DITARANTO > Flashcards

Flashcards in WEEK OF SEPT 16th, 2013 PART I – LADDERS 3 (TENEMENTS) Pgs 1 – 35: PART II – FFP – VENTILATION: PART III – COMMUNICATIONS MANUAL CH. #8: PART IV – EVOLUTION 1A: INSTRUCTOR: BC GENE DITARANTO Deck (60):
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PART I – LADDERS 3 (TENEMENTS) Pgs 1 – 35:
1) Please choose from the list below the incorrect description of VEIS (Vent, Entry, Isolate,
Search)? (Ladders 3, definitions)
A) VEIS (Vent, Entry, Isolate, Search) is the approved tactic when entering a structure through
an opening (door or window) to search an area for the location of the fire or to locate possible
victims.
B) The priority upon entering the area via a window is to open the door to that room or area in
order to expose that area being searched.
C) When entering a fire area via a doorway entrance, the door needs to be controlled until the
fire area is further isolated or a charged hose-line is advancing on the fire.
D) By isolating the area, the members are controlling the flow path of the fire, heat and smoke
towards the ventilation point as well as controlling the air flow from the ventilation point
towards the fire area.

1. B


2

2) If a known life hazard is discovered at a fire and immediate action could prevent the loss of
life, appropriate action (rescue activity) may be taken by an individual member. This applies
only for a known life hazard, not for standard search and rescue activity. A known life hazard is
defined as follows:
A) A victim can be seen by the rescuer.
B) A victim can be heard by the rescuer.
C) A member has information from a credible source or a person at the scene indicating the
location of the life hazard.
D) All of the above.
Please choose the most correct answer? (Ladders 3, section 1.1)

2. D

A known life hazard is defined as follows:
• A victim can be seen by the rescuer.
• A victim can be heard by the rescuer.
• A member has information from a credible source or a person at the scene
indicating the location of the life hazard.
Note: In all incidents of such individual action, the Incident Commander shall forward a
report detailing the full particulars to the Chief of Operations. A thorough review of each
of these incidents will be conducted.

3

3) Ladder company assignments are given to each member at roll calls. During roll call, the
Company Officer shall inform members of the following: Please choose the most correct
answer? (Ladders 3, section 1.1)
1. Hazardous conditions
2. Safety issues
3. Street openings
4. Department Orders and other pertinent information affecting the unit.
A) 1, 2, & 4 only B) 1 only C) 1, 2, & 3 only D) 1, 2, 3, 4

3. A

4

4) According to Ladders 3 the following characteristics are provided describing Old Law
Tenements. Please choose an incorrect characteristic from the list below? (Ladders 3,
section 1.2)
A) 20' to 25' wide and 50' to 85' deep.
B) Interior stairs to cellar (may have been removed if building has been renovated).
C) Some form of light/air shaft may be provided. These shafts are open at the top.
D) Complete and full fire stopping.
E) The presence of Energy Efficient Windows (EEW) will further increase heat, gases and
smoke conditions, possibly leading to a flashover or backdraft.

4. D

1.2 DESCRIPTION OLD LAW TENEMENTS (Figures 1A - 1E)
1.2.1 Three to seven stories.
1.2.2 20' to 25' wide.
1.2.3 50' to 85' deep.
1.2.4 Interior stairs to cellar (may have been removed if building has been renovated).
1.2.5 Some form of light/air shaft may be provided. (Figure 1) These shafts are open at
the top. The term "enclosed" as used in this bulletin will mean "a shaft open at
the top and bound by building walls on all sides." Figure 1-B, 1-C, and 1-D show
examples of enclosed shafts.
1.2.6 Limited fire stopping.
1.2.7 Combustible contents and structural components result in a hot smoky fire.
1.2.8 The presence of Energy Efficient Windows (EEW) will further increase heat,
gases and smoke conditions, possibly leading to a flashover or backdraft.

5

5) The First Ladder Company to Arrive at an Old Law Tenement fire is responsible for what
actions listed below according to Ladders 3, section 1.3? (MORE THAN ONE CORRECT)
(Ladders 3, section 1.3)
A) Ladder company operations on the floor above the fire, regardless of the arrival of the 2nd
due truck.
B) Determine life hazard and rescue as required.
C) Roof ventilation and a physical check from ground level of the rear and sides of the
building.
D) Laddering as needed.

5. B, D

1.3 GENERAL AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY
1.3.1 First Ladder Company to Arrive:
A. Ladder company operations on fire floor.
B. Determine life hazard and rescue as required.
C. Roof ventilation and a visual check of rear and sides from this level.
D. Laddering as needed.
E. If second Ladder Company will not arrive within a reasonable time, make
interior search and removal of endangered occupants above the fire.

6

6) The factors that all members must consider in size-up are correctly listed in which
choice(s) below, according to Ladders 3? (Ladders 3, section 1.4)
A) Time
B) Life
C) Area
D) Height
E) Construction
F) Occupancy
G) Location and Extent of Fire
H) Water Supply
I) Street Conditions
J) Auxiliary Appliances
K) Weather
L) Apparatus and Equipment
M) Exposures

6. All

7

7) An operational plan is necessary and has to be formed before the fire. The plan must be
understood by all and continual training is required. Ladders 3 presents such a plan, however, as
in any operational plan it must be flexible. Please choose an incorrect requirement of the
operational plan found in Ladders 3? (Ladders 3, section 2)
A) All ladder companies shall have a riding list posted conspicuously on the apparatus floor
assigning positions and/or tools.
B) All riding lists are generally prepared and predicated on the level of experience and training
of the members working, their experience in the type of occupancies to which the unit responds
the greatest number of times and where the greatest life hazard exists.
C) The well trained unit should also have alternate tool assignments and/or positions when
they are second to arrive or when operating in other types of dwellings.
D) The operational plan found in Ladders 3 is designed for Old Law Tenements and should
not be used for New Law Tenements.

7. D

2.5 The following operational plan while designed for Old Law Tenements is equally
effective in and should be used for New Law Tenements (even those with five to eight
apartments to a floor). To apply the plan, consider the vertical line of apartments in
which the fire apartment is situated as if it were a similar section in an Old Law
Tenement and operate the same way.

8

8) Please choose the correct definition(s) from the list below? (Ladders 3, section 3)
A) Light Fire Situation - a fire which can be extinguished with the operation of one hand-line
and/or hand extinguishers or those that can be readily extinguished without resorting to
extinguishing agents.
B) Medium Fire Situation - a fire which may be extinguished with the stretching of two handlines.

8. A

key word operation

Assumptions - There is a light to medium fire situation within the building with one or
more rooms involved, and both ladder companies and required engine companies will
arrive at the scene.
 Light Fire Situation - a fire which can be extinguished with the operation of one
handline and/or hand extinguishers or those that can be readily extinguished
without resorting to extinguishing agents.
 Medium Fire Situation - a fire which may be extinguished with the operation of
two handlines.

9

9) As the Officer of the first arriving Ladder Company you have several duties when
operating at an Old Law or New Law Tenement fire. Please choose an incorrect duty from the
list below? (Ladders 3, section 3.2)
A) Performing an immediate size-up and gives necessary orders.
B) Ensure that entry doors at street level are chocked open, to enable the stretching of hand
lines or access by other members.
C) Take command of forcible entry, locating the fire, search and removal of victims.
D) Maintain control of fire apartment door by leaving a member of the forcible entry team as
per Training Bulletin, Search 1.
E) Notify the Incident Commander or Engine Company Officer of the location of the fire
apartment and when you enter to search for the location of the fire.

9. E
"And" not or

4. Maintain control of fire apartment door by leaving a member of the
forcible entry team as per Training Bulletin, Search 1. Notify the Incident
Commander and Engine Company Officer of the location of the fire
apartment and when you enter to search for the location of the fire.

10

10) Ventilation tactics must be controlled, communicated to and coordinated by the Ladder
Company Officer inside the fire area to be vented, when operating at an Old Law or New Law
Tenement fire. Before ordering any horizontal or initial vertical ventilation the officer must
evaluate the impact the ventilation tactic will have on interior conditions. The Ladder Company
Officer inside the fire area shall:
1. Ensure door control at the fire area entrance.
2. Maintain situational awareness by monitoring handie-talkie transmissions.
3. Evaluate information from members operating on the exterior (such as life hazards,
ventilation profile, bars on windows).
4. Evaluate wind conditions that could impact interior conditions. Communicate the location
of the fire, fire conditions or difficulty finding the fire to the first two Engine Officers and
the Incident Commander.
5. Determine the location of the hose-line and any delays with the stretch. If there are water
problems, the Officer must perform a risk assessment and operate accordingly.
6. Coordinate search operations with the advance of the hose-line.
Please choose the incorrect item from the list above? (Ladders 3, section 3.2)
A) # 3 B) # 2 and 4 C) # 4 D) # 6

10. C

11

11) Company Officers must maintain communication with members not operating under their
immediate supervision to determine their status. The interval between contacts should be
frequent enough to provide for the safety of the firefighter being monitored without
monopolizing the frequency. Members are under the "Immediate Supervision" of an Officer
when:
A) They are within visual contact of the Officer, only.
B) They are working with a search line or hose line which is under the supervision of an
Officer.
Please choose the correct item from the list above? (Ladders 3, section 3.2)

11. B

12

12) When an emergency Roll Call is being conducted Companies will be called individually.
When called, company officers will account for the firefighters of their company that are
_________________________________________________. Please fill in the blank?
(Communications 9, add # 2, section 4.7)
A) within sight or hearing without using the HT.
B) under Immediate Supervision.
C) under Functional Supervision.
D) None of the Above.

12. A

13

13) The Ladder company chauffeur must have a working knowledge of the duties and
responsibilities of all members of the first Ladder Company and how they are likely to execute
their assignments under different fire situations. Please choose an incorrect position for the first
due Ladder Chauffeur at an Old Law Tenement with no front fire escape? (Ladders 3,
section 3.2.4)
A) The front of the fire building.
B) The chauffeur of an aerial ladder or Tower Ladder shall not operate in a manner that will in
any way impede their return to the pedestal and cause a delay in positioning or repositioning the
aerial for rescue or removal operations.
C) The chauffeur must notify their Company Officer of intended destination when leaving this
primary position.

13. B

POSITION: The front of the fire building. The chauffeur of an aerial ladder
shall not operate in a manner that will in any way impede their
return to the pedestal and cause a delay in positioning or
repositioning the aerial for rescue or removal operations. The
chauffeur must notify their Company Officer of intended
destination when leaving this primary position.

TL LCC can't leave pedestal at all

14

14) Please choose an incorrect duty for the first Ladder company chauffeur?
(Ladders 3, section 3.2.4)
A) Position apparatus for complete coverage and immediate use. If unable to attain this
position the Ladder Company Officer and the Incident Commander must be notified.
B) Raise and use aerial and/or portable ladders for rescue.
C) Prior to conducting any horizontal ventilation tactics from the exterior, the chauffeur shall
request permission from the Ladder Company Officer in order to coordinate ventilation tactics
with interior operations.
D) The Ladder chauffeur should remain on the turntable when members have entered the
building by any means and are in precarious positions such as a floor over a heavy fire, the roof
of a building with a heavy fire condition, etc.

14. D

15

15) A situation that can arise is the obvious need to use the aerial for the roof firefighter but at
the same time there is an apparent need to remove an occupant at an Old Law or New Law
Tenement fire. Consider the following factors in reaching a decision as to the ladder’s initial use:
Please choose the most correct answer? (Ladders 3, section 3.2.4)
A) Emotional state of the occupant, an agitated, frightened occupant or one threatening to
jump should be removed first.
B) Fire/Smoke in the immediate vicinity of the occupant, the occupant might receive instant
attention if he/she would be endangered and seriously disturbed by any delay in his/her removal.
C) Location and severity of the fire, a front first floor fire will not normally require immediate
removal of occupants from the 3rd, 4th, or higher floors in the front of the building.
D) The Time Element, when aerial ladder is needed both for removal and roof access, roof
access can be given priority if the person to be removed is in no immediate danger. If any doubt
exists consider removing the occupant first.
E) All of the above.

15. A

8. A situation that can arise is the obvious need to use the aerial for the roof
firefighter but at the same time there is an apparent need to remove an
occupant. Consider the following factors in reaching a decision as to its
initial use:
 Emotional state of the occupant - An agitated, frightened occupant
or one threatening to jump should be removed first.
 Fire/Smoke in the immediate vicinity of the occupant - The
occupant must receive instant attention if he/she would be
endangered or seriously disturbed by any delay in his/her removal.
 Location and severity of the fire - A rear first floor fire will not
normally require immediate removal of occupants from the 3rd,
4th, or higher floors in the front of the building. Conversely, a fire
on the upper floors rarely requires removal operations on lower
floors.
 The Time Element - When aerial ladder is needed both for removal
and roof access, roof access can be given priority if the person to
be removed is in no immediate danger. If any doubt exists remove
the occupant first. After roof access has been attained, the aerial
ladder may be used for the removal, keeping in mind that the
ladder must be repositioned as quickly as possible to avoid
endangering the roof firefighter should the roof position become
untenable.

16

16) Please choose an incorrect duty for the first due OV at an Old Law Tenement or New Law
Tenement fire? (Ladders 3, section 3.2.5)
A) Except for assisting the chauffeur in front of the fire building when aerial or portable
ladders are needed for rescue or removal, assignment is to ventilate the fire area from the exterior
providing horizontal ventilation.
B) Prior to conducting any horizontal ventilation tactics from the exterior, the OV shall
request permission from the Ladder Company Officer to coordinate ventilation tactics with
interior operations.
C) If the location of the fire apartment is not obvious from the exterior of the building, the OV
should communicate with the Incident Commander.
D) Once the location is verified, the OV can then reach the correct fire escape via a window
from a lower or adjacent apartment, or from a drop ladder/portable ladder at ground level.

16. C

17

17) Please choose an incorrect tool assignment for the first due OV at an Old Law Tenement or
New Law Tenement fire? (Ladders 3, section 3.2.5)
A) Handie-Talkie
B) Flashlight
C) Halligan tool
D) 6' Hook - For top floor fires the saw is taken in place of the halligan.

17. D

3.2.5 Outside Vent Position
TOOLS: Handie-Talkie
Flashlight
Halligan tool
6' Hook - For top floor fires the saw is taken in place of the hook.

18

18) Prior to venting from the fire escape to search, the OV must receive permission from the
Ladder Company Officer via HT. The OV might not be aware of conditions in the apartment.
With the exception of a known life hazard, the entry and search will be completed if the OV
teams up as follows:
A) When there is only a front fire escape (railroad apartments) OR the fire apartment is in the
front, the OV and Roof Firefighter (or another available member) shall team up and enter the fire
apartment from that fire escape.
B) When there is a rear fire escape AND the fire apartment is in the rear, the OV and
Chauffeur (or another available member) shall team up and enter the fire apartment from that fire
escape.
C) Regardless of the situation, outside firefighters will effect the removal of any occupants but
still consider fire severity or extinguishing operations which may endanger them. This task may
prove difficult due to bars and gates.
D) All of the above.

Please choose the most correct procedure for the OV from the items above? (Ladders 3,
section 3.2.5)

18. C

19

19) From the list below, which access to the roof is least desirable for a Roof Firefighter at an
Old Law Tenement fire? (Ladders 3, section 3.2.6)
A) Aerial Ladder
B) Adjoining Building
C) Rear Fire Escape

19. C

20

20) When in position at the bulkhead door at an Old Law Tenement fire, the Roof Firefighter
shall transmit this information to the Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area to be vented.
Following this transmission, the Roof Firefighter can start to force open the bulkhead door
without direct radio communication, if which items below exist? (Ladders 3, section
3.2.6)
A) The Roof Firefighter may perform vertical ventilation without direct communication upon
hearing radio transmissions that the interior team has door control on the fire floor.
B) The Roof Firefighter may perform vertical ventilation without direct communication upon
hearing radio transmissions that a charged hose-line is advancing into the fire building.

20. A

21

21) If the Officer does not want vertical ventilation performed due to fire conditions preventing
control of the fire apartment door; the Roof Firefighter will not perform vertical ventilation.
However, in an attempt to reach potential victims who may be trapped inside the bulkhead as
soon as possible, the Roof Firefighter will perform the following actions, which are not
considered vertical ventilation. Please choose an incorrect action from the list below?
(Ladders 3, section 3.2.6)
A) They will force open the bulkhead door, regardless of conditions, the member should reach
in and probe the immediate area of the bulkhead for potential victims and then immediately close
and control the door until the Officer orders vertical ventilation.
B) If the bulkhead door cannot be closed and controlled for any reason (e.g. victim removal,
damaged door), immediately notify the Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area to be
searched.
C) The objective is to control the vertical flow path of fire conditions until the members have
control of the fire apartment door or are advancing into the fire apartment with a charged hoseline.

21. A

22

22) At Old Law Tenement top floor fires the first due Roof Firefighter should perform all of
the tasks below except one, please choose the exception? (Ladders 3, section 3.2.6)
A) Ventilate top floor windows from roof level.
B) Prior to conducting any horizontal ventilation tactics from the exterior, the Roof Firefighter
shall request permission from the Ladder Company Officer in order to coordinate ventilation
tactics with interior operations.
C) Communication with the Ladder Company Officer must be maintained in order to
coordinate the horizontal ventilation as the hose-line is applying water to extinguish the fire.
D) The Roof Firefighter is also responsible for utilization of the saw to vent the cockloft and
top floor when necessary before completing initial duties.

22. D

23

23) Please choose an incorrect procedure for the Roof Firefighter when operating on the roof of
a Tenement fire? (Ladders 3, section 3.2.6)
A) Heavy smoke and high heat issuing from the bulkhead doorway or scuttle would obviously
require further ventilation such as removal of the skylight.
B) Opening a bulkhead door or scuttle cover will always give a true indication of interior fire
conditions.
C) If fire and smoke conditions are obviously heavy, immediate venting of the skylight prior
to the removal of the scuttle cover to relieve the interior would be justified.

23. B

24

24) Prior to proceeding above the fire, the second arriving Ladder Officer must ensure that the
officers on the fire floor are made aware of this team’s intention, so that members operating
above can be warned of any situation necessitating withdrawal. When operating on the floors
above the fire, members should force one or more doors on each floor to provide an area of
refuge. Before proceeding above, the officer must size up conditions on the fire floor. The
following should be considered: Please choose the correct considerations? (MORE THAN ONE
CORRECT) (Ladders 3, section 3.4.2)
A) Severity and location of fire.
B) Line placement and availability of water.
C) Control of fire apartment door.
D) Consideration of an area of refuge after going above.

24. A, B, C

1. Before proceeding above, the officer must size up conditions on the fire
floor. The following should be considered:
 Severity and location of fire.
 Line placement and availability of water.
 Control of fire apartment door.
 Consideration of an area of refuge before going above.

25

25) Please choose an incorrect duty for the second arriving Ladder Company Officer at a fire in
a tenement? (Ladders 3, section 3.4.2)
A) Call for a line if needed.
B) Cause a thorough search on all floors above the fire.
C) Have subordinates verify that areas assigned for search have been completely covered.
D) Direct and control horizontal ventilation on the fire floor.
E) Ensure that the rear and sides of the building are checked.
F) Assure safety of members, transmit necessary information to the Incident Commander.

25. D

26

26) The second due Roof Firefighter at a tenement fire should contact the first due Roof
Firefighter to determine the following: (MORE THAN ONE CORRECT)
A) The worst method of access to the roof.
B) Problems encountered if any.
C) Need for assistance.
D) Need to seek an alternative route.
Please choose the correct item(s) from the list above? (Ladders 3, section 3.4.7)

26. B, C, D

27

27) Please choose an incorrect position / duty for the second due Ladder Company at a top
floor fire in an Old Law Tenement? (Ladders 3, section 3.5)
A) Inside Team - Proceed to the top floor to assist first Ladder Company in entry and search of
all top floor apartments. This permits deployment of 6 firefighters (2 officers and 4 firefighters)
in a critical top floor area.
B) Roof Position - proceed to roof with power saw. Assist First Roof Firefighter on venting
roof as ordered and commence opening with saw if required. Assist venting top floor windows
from roof level as ordered.
C) OV Position - vent the fire apartment from the fire escape. Prior to conducting any
horizontal ventilation tactics from the exterior, the second OV shall request permission from the
second Ladder Company Officer in order to coordinate ventilation tactics with interior
operations.
D) Chauffeur Position - Front of fire building. If not needed here, proceeds to the roof.

27. C

28

28) There are situations in which the same concentration of ladder company personnel in one
building is not required. In these situations, the major effort will be where the life and fire
extension hazard is the greatest. Please choose the most correct example of these situations from
the list below? (Ladders 3, section 4.2.4)
A) Fire originated in an apartment in an occupied building and exposing a vacant building.
B) Shaft fire between two occupied buildings.
C) Fire originated in the bottom of the shaft.
D) All of the above.

28. C

4.2.4 Variations - There are situations in which the same concentration of ladder
company personnel in one building is not required. In these situations, the major
effort will be where the life and fire extension hazard is the greatest.
A. Fire originated in an apartment in a vacant building and exposing an
occupied building.
B. Shaft fire between two vacant buildings.
C. Fire originated in the bottom of the shaft.

29

29) Please choose an incorrect procedure for Ladder Companies when operating at dumbwaiter
fires in tenements? (Ladders 3, section 4.3)
A) First and Second Ladder Company assignments remain the same, all units must be
immediately notified of a dumbwaiter fire.
B) It is important that the top floor, cockloft and cellar are checked as soon as possible.
C) If heavy smoke is venting out of a dumbwaiter bulkhead, the roof firefighter should inform
his/her officer.
D) If fire is reported in the dumbwaiter shaft, the roof firefighter should vent the dumbwaiter
bulkhead after obtaining permission from his/her officer.
E) Similarly if after venting a dumbwaiter bulkhead, the roof firefighter does not see any
appreciable volume of smoke venting, the roof firefighter should notify his/her officer. This may
indicate there is an obstruction in the shaft below.

29. D

4.3.5 If fire is reported in the dumbwaiter shaft, the roof firefighter should vent the
dumbwaiter bulkhead.

30

30) Please choose an incorrect procedure for Roof firefighters when maneuvering on the roof
of a fire building? (Ladders 3, section 5.2)
A) The roof firefighter must plan alternative routes, then continually monitor the fire and its
effect on the alternatives for as long as the firefighter is on the roof.
B) If possible, the roof firefighter should move from one roof to another near the front wall
always checking his/her footing as described below.
C) In order to alert members to the presence of openings, roof level skylights and/or scuttle
covers if removed, should be placed upside down on the roof.
D) Before walking or moving on a roof when visibility is poor, or a heavy smoke condition
exists, firefighters should crouch to a kneeling position. Members should probe the roof surface
by either swinging a tool or leg in the direction of movement.
E) Members operating on the roof should not step over a parapet or wall without first feeling
the adjoining surface with a tool.
F) When momentarily blinded by smoke or darkness, and there is immediate danger to the
firefighter, it may be best for the member to remain in place until visibility is restored.

30. F

When momentarily blinded by smoke or
darkness, and there is no immediate danger to the firefighter, it may be best for
the member to remain in place until visibility is restored

31

PART II – FFP – VENTILATION:
1) Successful ventilation tactics begin with the understanding of basic fire dynamics as well as
how a ventilation tactic will impact the fire’s behavior. Some fire dynamic concepts to
understand regarding fire development are:
A) Modern content fires are largely comprised of hydrocarbons and synthetics which rapidly
consume the available oxygen in the air as they burn at a lesser rate than legacy content fires.
B) Modern content fires quickly become ventilation limited fires due to their higher fuel load.
C) Modern content fires enter an early decay stage due to the limited available oxygen,
producing heavy smoke and varying heat conditions.
D) If indications of an early decay stage exist upon arrival, uncontrolled and/or uncoordinated
ventilation can have tragic implications for both civilians and operating members.
Please choose an incorrect item from the list above? (Ventilation, section 2.1)

1. A

32

2) The traditional fire development curve follows which stage(s) listed below? (MORE
THAN ONE CORRECT) (Ventilation, section 2.1.5)
A) Incipient
B) Growth
C) Fully developed
D) Decay

2. All

33

3) The progression of modern content fires differs from the traditional fire development curve
as follows:
A) Incipient stage
B) A slow Growth stage that consumes the available oxygen very slowly.
C) Since modern content fires slowly consume the available oxygen within the fire area, they
enter into a later oxygen limited Decay stage when compared to legacy fires, and will remain in
the Decay stage if no additional oxygen is added to the fire area.
Please choose the correct item(s) from the list above? (Ventilation, section 2.1.6)

3. A

34

4) Over the past years, the fire service has experienced a series of profound changes that
collectively create a fire-ground of increased danger. In addition to understanding the changes in
fire dynamics, our ventilation tactics have also been affected by the following: Please choose the
item that is not stated in this section of the Ventilation bulletin? (Ventilation, section 3)
A) Energy efficient building construction.
B) Personal Protective Equipment.
C) Four firefighter Engine Companies.
D) Hydraulic forcible entry tools.
E) Thermal Imaging Cameras (TIC).

4. C

35

5) On each response, officers and firefighters must conduct an initial size-up which includes
the type of building, occupancy, and conditions on arrival. Part of this initial size-up includes a
ventilation profile of the fire conditions. This ventilation profile should note:
A) The location where smoke or fire is venting from the building.
B) Evaluation of the volume, pressure, and velocity of the smoke venting from the building.
C) Amount of fire venting from the building, including when fire or smoke is not venting out
open windows.
D) Fire and smoke should be venting outwards and upwards. If the smoke and fire are venting
downward, horizontally or pulsing from an opening in the building, this indicates the fire
conditions may be wind impacted.
E) Any unusual ventilation profile must be immediately communicated to the Incident
Commander, who will decide which officers should be notified.
Please choose an incorrect item from the list above? (Ventilation, section 4.1)

5. E

 Fire and smoke should be venting outwards and upwards. If the smoke and fire are
venting downward, horizontally or pulsing from an opening in the building, this
indicates the fire conditions may be wind impacted. Any unusual ventilation profile
must be immediately communicated to the Ladder Company Officer inside the fire
area to be vented and the IC.

36

6) All interior and exterior horizontal ventilation tactics must be controlled, communicated,
coordinated and approved by the Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area to be vented.
Before ordering any horizontal ventilation, this Officer must evaluate the impact that this tactic
will have on interior conditions. The Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area shall:
A) Ensure door control at the fire area entrance. Maintain situational awareness by monitoring
handie-talkie transmissions.
B) Evaluate information from members operating on the exterior. (Such as life hazards,
ventilation profile, bars on windows). Evaluate wind conditions that could impact interior fire
conditions.
C) Communicate the location of the fire, fire conditions or difficulty finding the fire to the
Engine Officer and IC.
D) Have the Engine Officer determine the location of the hose-line and any delays or
difficulties with the stretch.
E) Coordinate search operations with the advance of the hose-line.
Please choose an incorrect item from the list above? (Ventilation, section 8.1)

6. D

8.1.1 The Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area shall:
 Ensure door control at the fire area entrance.
 Maintain situational awareness by monitoring handie-talkie transmissions.
 Evaluate information from members operating on the exterior. (Such as life
hazards, ventilation profile, bars on windows).
 Evaluate wind conditions that could impact interior fire conditions.
 Communicate the location of the fire, fire conditions or difficulty finding the
fire to the Engine Officer and IC.
 Determine the location of the hoseline and any delays or difficulties with the
stretch.
 If there are water problems, the Ladder Company Officer must perform a risk
assessment and operate accordingly.
 Coordinate search operations with the advance of the hoseline.
 Be aware of all potential ventilation points within the structure or fire area.
Ventilation points that are behind your operating position may place you in a
flow path. You need to control flow path formation until there is a charged
hoseline advancing in the fire area to extinguish the fire.
 Continually assess the volume of smoke and heat conditions in the fire area
utilizing the TIC to enhance the initial size-up. If the officer encounters a high
heat and smoke condition, he/she shall immediately exit and isolate the area.
Ventilation will not sufficiently cool or relieve these conditions. The horizontal
ventilation of window(s) can cause these fire conditions to rapidly expand
placing members in an untenable environment. A charged hoseline is needed to
provide the required cooling of the area or extinguishment of the fire.

37

7) All horizontal ventilation tactics performed from the exterior must be controlled,
communicated, and coordinated by the Ladder Company Officer operating inside the fire area to
be vented. Members operating on the exterior shall perform all of the following tasks below
except one, please choose the exception? (Ventilation, section 8.2.1)
A) While getting into their operating position conduct a size-up and communicate findings to
the Ladder Company Officer (such as life hazard, ventilation profile, bars on windows, wind
conditions).
B) Monitor handie-talkie transmissions to maintain situational awareness.
C) Notify the Ladder Company Officer when they are in position to ventilate as directed. This
can either be Ventilation for Search or Ventilation for Extinguishment.
D) Communicate to the Incident Commander any change to the ventilation profile caused by
ventilation tactics.

7. D

8.2.1 Members operating on the exterior shall:
 While getting into their operating position conduct a size-up and communicate
findings to the Ladder Company Officer (such as life hazard, ventilation
profile, bars on windows, wind conditions).
 Monitor handie-talkie transmissions to maintain situational awareness.
 Notify the Ladder Company Officer when they are in position to ventilate as
directed. This can either be Ventilation for Search or Ventilation for
Extinguishment.
 Communicate to the Ladder Company Officer any change to the ventilation
profile caused by ventilation tactics.
Note: Additional responsibilities of members performing horizontal ventilation are
addressed in the various Firefighting Procedures volumes/books.

38

8) Initial vertical ventilation tactics at a 4 story Old Law Tenement with a fire in one of the
apartments on the 4th floor must be communicated to and coordinated by the Ladder Company
Officer operating inside the fire area to be vented. The Ladder Company Officer inside the fire
area shall, establish door control of the fire area and order initial vertical ventilation once door
control is assured. Members performing vertical ventilation shall: Please choose the most correct
answer? (Ventilation, section 10.2.1)
1. Conduct an initial size-up of the incident, including a ventilation profile and monitoring of
handie-talkie transmissions to improve situational awareness.
2. Upon arrival on the roof, conduct a size-up of the roof for available vertical ventilation
points including a visual survey of the exterior of the building. Look for any life hazard and
reassess the ventilation profile of the fire conditions.
3. Communicate findings to the Ladder Company Officer (such as life hazards, fire and
smoke conditions).
4. No vertical ventilation shall be performed unless the roof firefighter directly communicates
with and receives approval from the Ladder Company Officer, regardless of radio
transmissions stating that a charged hose-line is advancing into the building.
A) 1, 2, 3 only B) 2 & 3 only C) 1, 2, 3, 4 D) None of the above.

8. C

39

9) A member from Ladder 126 is on the exterior waiting to perform horizontal ventilation for
extinguishment of the immediate fire area, listening for the following transmissions from the
Engine Company Officer:
The notification from the Engine Officer to the Engine Chauffeur to start water. “E-303 to E-
303 chauffeur, start water.”
The notification from the Engine Officer to the IC, “E-303 to Battalion 51, we are knocking
down visible fire.”
The two transmissions above are an indication to the exterior member to prepare to conduct
ventilation for extinguishment. Please choose an incorrect tactic for the L-126 member
performing ventilation for extinguishment after these two transmissions from the Engine Officer
in 303? (Ventilation, section 11.4)
A) Before venting the window(s) the member must communicate with and receive approval
from the Ladder Company Officer inside the fire area to be vented. “L-126 OV to L-126, ready
to vent.” “L-126 to L-126 OV 10-4, vent the windows.”
B) The approval to perform this horizontal ventilation for extinguishment tactic applies to the
window(s) throughout the fire building.
C) Any additional horizontal ventilation tactics must be communicated with and coordinated
by the Ladder Company Officer operating in that area prior to performing such ventilation.

9. B

40

10) When a fire progresses past the _____________ , the fire area is considered an IDLH
atmosphere under the progression of the modern content fire. Please fill in the blank?
(Ventilation, section 12.2)
A) incipient stage
B) ventilation limited stage
C) early decay stage
D) 2nd decay stage

10. A

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11) The member(s) performing Ventilation for Search, shall comply with the following:
A) The Ladder Company Officer shall be notified when a search team enters from the exterior
to conduct a search for a known life hazard or when they are entering to conduct standard search
procedures.
B) Once a decision has been made and approval has been granted to enter, the member should
clear out the window for access and be cognizant that a new flow path has been created.
C) After venting and entering, the priority action for the member is to isolate the area by
closing a door before conducting the search (VEIS).
D) Search the room and locate any victim. If a victim is found immediately transmit radio
code 10-45, include your location and planned exit route.
E) If a victim is found prior to isolating the room, the member shall proceed with the rescue
effort and isolate the room after removal of the victim.
Please choose an incorrect item from the list above? (Ventilation, section 12.6)

11. E

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1) Please choose the correct code for the 10-25 signal listed below?
(Communications, Chapter 8)
A) Code 1 = Transmit a code 1 only when fire extends from a manhole into a building.
B) Code 3 = Fire has blown one or more manhole covers, or smoke is issuing from a manhole
under pressure.
C) Code 2 = Smoke is seeping from a manhole.
D) Code 4 = Fire or smoke condition from a transformer at any location. i.e., pole, vault, room,
etc.
A) Code 1 B ) Code 3 C) Code 2 D) Code 4

1. A

BUST

10-25 Manhole or Transformer Fire or Emergency
Any type of manhole or transformer fire or emergency.
Without Code: Situation other than as described in Codes 1, 2, 3, or 4.
Code 1: Fire has extended from a manhole, conduit, or transformer into a
building.
Code 2: Fire has blown one or more manhole covers, or smoke is issuing
from a manhole under pressure.
Code 3: Smoke is seeping from a manhole.
Code 4: Fire or smoke condition from a transformer at any location.
i.e., pole, vault, room, etc.
Note: Utility Company will dispatch an emergency crew immediately
upon receipt of a Code 1 or Code 4 signal.

43

2) If an electric skillet went on fire because the cooking oil became to hot and the skillet was
inside of a structure with no extension beyond the skillet and only one Engine and one Ladder
Company were required, which radio signal would be transmitted? (Communications 8)
A) 10-18 for a 10-33-1
B) 10-18 for a 10-33-2
C) 10-18 for a 10-26
D) 10-18 for a 10-31

2. C

44

3) If a fire occurs in rubbish on a subway platform, please choose the correct 10-28 code
from the list below? (Communications 8)
A) Code 1
B) Code 2
C) Code 3

3. A

45

4) Please choose the correct reason(s) to use a 10-31 from the list below?
(Communications 8)
A) All calls for assistance other than medical assignments, not including a unit assigned to
protect EMS by diverting or blocking traffic at a highway incident.
B) Good intention calls.
C) Calls handled by other agencies.
D) Any type of investigation.
E) Searches and complaints.
F) Elevator emergencies and lock-outs.

4. B,C, D, E, F

10-31 Assist Civilian
All calls for assistance other than medical assignments, including a unit assigned to
protect EMS by diverting or blocking traffic at a highway incident, good intention
calls, calls handled by other agencies, any type of investigation, searches and
complaints, elevator emergencies, and lock-outs. Chapter 4 Section 1.3 of the New
York Fire Incident Reporting System (NYFIRS) lists incidents and situations codes.

46

5) If you were operating at a commercial building where the fire alarm activated for a steam
leak from the heating unit, which 10-35 code would you transmit? (Communications 8)
A) 10-35 no code
B) 10-35 code 1
C) 10-35 code 2
D) 10-35 code 3
E) 10-35 code 4
F) None of the above

5) Steam under 10-35-3 is intended to mean steam from a shower, that would be a normal
household activity, a steam leak is not a normal household activity. It would also not be a
10-35-4 because the alarm was not unnecessary, even though it was a known cause, a
legitimate steam leak caused the alarm to activate. The purpose of this signal is to ensure
that the owner maintains the alarm and tries to eliminate preventable activations.

47

6) If you were operating at a 40 story hotel and it was determined that their fire alarm was
activated maliciously by the use of a manual pull station, which radio signal would you transmit
from the list below? (Communications 8 & BISP Manual chapter 5, reference 1.7)
A) 10-35 no code
B) 10-92
C) 10-35-4
D) 10-35-1

6. B

48

7) You are working a 6x9 tour in Ladder 133 when you are called to a report of a fire. After a
preliminary investigation you recommend a 10-26 to the Incident Commander (IC), however you
also inform the IC that a civilian suffered a thermal burn while trying to extinguish the food on
the stove. The civilian was burned as a direct result of heat from a flame and you are also
recommending a 10-37-3 for a minor burn. As a sharp fire tech student would know that the
correct signal for this injury would be? (Communications Chapter 8)
A) 10-37-2
B) 10-37-4
C) 10-45
D) The truck officer is correct 10-37-3

7. C

49

8) You have just started a night tour working in Engine 1 when you respond on an EMS run
for a child burned by a flame. Upon arrival EMS informs you that a two year old child suffered a
minor burn after directly touching the heating element from a hot electric stove and no flame or
fire existed. As a sharp fire tech student you should instruct the ECC to transmit which radio
code for the victim? (Communications Chapter 8)
A) 10-45
B) 10-37 with appropriate sub code.

8. B

50

9) While operating at a fire in a detached garage associated with a Private Dwelling you
determine as the Incident Commander that the fire is suspicious. You had just given a 10-45 code
1 at this box for a victim found within the garage and now decide to transmit the appropriate 10-
41 code, please choose the correct 10-41 code from the list below? (Communications chapter 8)
A) 10-41 Code 4
B) 10-41 Code 2
C) 10-41 Code 3
D) 10-41 Code 1

9. D

10-41 code
“Occupied Some Vehicles Garage”
Code 1 Occupied Structure or Vehicle
Code 2: Unoccupied Structure
Code 3: Unoccupied Vehicle
Code 4: Vacant Structure, or Structures not intended for Dwelling Purposes such as detached garage, shed, etc.

51

10) You have just arrived on the scene of a collapse, after your size-up you determine that a 6
story Multiple Dwelling has collapsed prior to your arrival. Please choose the correct radio code
to transmit, it should be noted that you were the first Fire Officer and Fire Unit on scene?
(Communications 8)
A) 10-66 and a 10-60
B) 10-60
C) 10-60 code 1
D) 10-60 code 2

10. D

10) 10-66 = Missing, Lost, Trapped, or Seriously Injured Member and Additional Resources
are Required. (If members are trapped at a collapse give a 10-66 and the appropriate 10-
60.)
10-60 = Major Emergency Incident with the potential for multiple casualties, e.g. collapse
of a private dwelling, derailment of a subway car.
10-60-1 = Major Emergency Incident with the potential for multiple casualties, with the
need for Enhanced Technical Rescue Resources.

Note: Technical Rescue defined as tunneling, trenching, shoring, cutting of load-bearing
structural members, complicated disentanglement/extrication, etc.
10-60-2 = Major Emergency Incident with the potential for multiple casualties, with the
need for Enhanced Technical Rescue Resources. Incident is of a larger scale requiring an
enhanced 2nd Alarm assignment, e.g. collapse of a 6 story multiple dwelling, an explosion
with severe collateral structural damage, airplane crash (except Airport Crash Boxes 37
LaGuardia and 269 JFK).

52

11) A 10-70 is a notification that the first arriving engine does NOT have a positive water
source. This shall be an "urgent" message to the dispatcher from the unit transmitting the signal.
It will also require an "urgent" HT transmission to all units on the scene. Examples of situations
that would require a 10-70 include:
A) Dead or Frozen Hydrant
B) Unable to Access a Hydrant
C) Unable to Hookup to a Hydrant
D) Insufficient Hydrant Pressure
E) No Water/Insufficient Pressure at Sprinkler Outlet
Please choose the incorrect item from the list above? (Communications 8)

11. E

53

12) You arrive on scene as the first due Engine Company Officer and the first due Truck
Company Officer reports that a serious fire has been verified on the 25th floor of a 50 story High
Rise Office Building. The Truck Officer requests that you transmit the appropriate radio signal,
from the list below please choose the correct signal to transmit? (Communications 8)
A) 10-76 / 2nd Alarm
B) 2nd Alarm / 10-76
C) 2nd Alarm
D) 10-76 / 3rd Alarm

12. A

54

13) The 10-80 No Code is used as a radio signal at incidents that can be controlled by the onscene
unit(s) and requires no additional resources. Guidelines for transmitting Signal 10-80 No
Code are correctly found in which choice(s) below? (MORE THAN ONE CORRECT)
(Communications 8)
A) Release is of a small to medium size quantity.
B) The material has been identified, the hazards are pending Haz-Mat verification.
C) Firefighters’ PPE provides adequate protection against the hazards.
D) Special equipment and specialized training are not needed.

13. C, D

10-80 No Code
An incident that can be controlled by the on-scene unit(s) and requires no
additional resources:
The HM Battalion and HMC1 can be contacted via the dispatcher, 800 MHz or
cell phone for technical information if necessary. HM Battalion and HMC1 may
be requested to respond to the incident if necessary.
Guidelines for transmitting Signal 10-80 No Code include:
A. Release is of a small quantity
B. The material and its hazards have been identified
C. Firefighters’ PPE provides adequate protection against the hazards
D. Special equipment and specialized training are not needed

55

14) When a unit has a defective or non-operating apparatus radio, the officer on duty shall
notify the Battalion and Division. In addition, the officer shall call the dispatcher requesting a
radio mechanic response for repairs to the apparatus radio. Upon notification of the
defective/non-operating apparatus radio, the Division shall supply the affected unit with a
portable citywide radio capable of direct communications with all borough dispatchers. Please
choose an incorrect procedure for a unit officer when utilizing a portable citywide radio on a
response? (Communications 8, section 8.14)
A) During a response, the affected unit will use the citywide radio in lieu of the non-operating
apparatus radio for all communications to the borough dispatcher until the apparatus radio is
repaired.
B) The citywide radio can be carried/worn by the company officer or it can remain in the front
cab of the apparatus and serve as a communication link from the unit to the borough dispatcher.
C) If a response is received while awaiting the arrival of the citywide radio, the officer shall
notify the dispatcher that the unit is responding without an operating apparatus radio.
D) The dispatcher will then ensure that an additional unit (nearest available Engine or Ladder)
with an operating apparatus radio is dispatched to the same alarm.

14. B

8.14.5 During a response, the affected unit will use the citywide radio in lieu of the
non-operating apparatus radio for all communications to the borough dispatcher
until the apparatus radio is repaired. The citywide radio is not to be carried/worn
by the company officer; it shall remain in the front cab of the apparatus and serve
as a communication link from the unit to the borough dispatcher.

56

PART IV – EVOLUTION 1A:
1) Please choose an incorrect in-line pumping procedure from the list below?
(Evolutions 1A, section 3)
A) The Pumper stops so that the rear step is opposite the hydrant.
B) The Hydrant FF equipped with a hydrant wrench and a 2-1⁄2” gate, tests the hydrant. A bolt
cutter should be taken if necessary.
C) After the hydrant is deemed serviceable, the Hose FF keys the hydrant by pulling sufficient
3-1/2” hose from the hose bed prepared for In-Line Pumping (ILP) and takes a turn around the
hydrant.
D) The Hydrant FF should maintain the key as the pumper proceeds, connect the 3-1⁄2” hose
to the 4-1⁄2” outlet of the hydrant, and should always connect a 2-1⁄2” gate to the hydrants 2-1⁄2”
outlet.

1. D

3.3 The Hydrant FF should:
1) Maintain the key as the pumper proceeds. (See Figure 2)
2) Connect the 3½” hose to the 4½” outlet of the hydrant. (See Figure 3)
3) If time permits, connect a 2½” gate to the hydrants 2½” outlet. (See Figure 3)
4) Waits for notification from the ECC before opening the hydrant. (See Figure 4)

57

2) After receiving notification from the ECC (from a four Firefighter Engine) to start water,
the Hydrant Firefighter (FF) opens the hydrant fully and then proceeds to the pumper for the
purpose of controlling the stretch, during an in line pumping operation. The Hydrant FF, after
controlling the stretch, ensures tools are placed on the apparatus and then proceeds to the fire,
moving hose close to the curb, removing kinks, etc. However, depending on staffing, the initial
hand-line stretch will be controlled by which firefighter listed below, until relieved by the
Control FF? (Evolutions 1A, section 3.6)
A) Door FF
B) ECC
C) 2nd due Control FF
D) Back Up FF

2. B

3.6 After receiving notification from the ECC to start water, the Hydrant FF opens the
hydrant fully and then proceeds to the pumper for the purpose of controlling the stretch.
The Hydrant FF, after controlling the stretch, ensures tools are placed on the apparatus
and then proceeds to the fire, moving hose close to the curb, removing kinks, etc.
Note: Depending on staffing, the initial handline stretch will be controlled by either the
Door FF (5 FF Engine) or the ECC (4 FF Engine), until relieved by the Control FF
(Hydrant Firefighter).

58

3) Please choose a guideline that should not be followed when in line pumping (ILP)?
(Evolution 1A, Notes)
A) Hydrant selected for ILP must be on a 6” or larger main. During Water Alert, ILP cannot
be used.
B) Pumper shall use 3-1⁄2” inch hose as the initial supply line from the hydrant to the pumper.
C) Not more than 6 lengths of hose shall be used in the initial supply line.
D) When intake pressure drops below 15 psi, the pump operator shall have his intake supply
augmented.

3. A

2. Hydrant selected for ILP must be on a 6” or larger main. During Water Alert, ILP shall
not be used unless absolutely necessary.

59

4) During in line pumping the pumper may proceed to the operating position, stopping only to
drop the Hydrant Firefighter (FF) off for testing the hydrant. Generally, a maximum of _____
lengths of 3-1⁄2” supply line may be hand stretched back to this hydrant if necessary. Please fill
in the blank? (Evolution 1A, Notes)
A) 2
B) 4
C) 6
D) 3

4. D

60

5) ECCs must check their initial intake pressure is dynamic prior to starting water during in
line pumping (ILP) operations and anticipate when their initial intake pressure is low, (45 – 55
psi), that their residual pressure may not be capable of safely sustaining 3 hand-lines. The need
for augmentation should be anticipated based on the initial intake pressure. Please indicate if
you agree or disagree with the above paragraph? (Evolution 1A)
A) Agree or D) Disagree

16. ECCs must check their initial intake pressure is static prior to starting water during ILP
operations and anticipate when their initial intake pressure is low, (30 – 40 psi), that their
residual pressure may not be capable of safely sustaining 2 handlines. The need for
augmentation should be anticipated based on the initial intake pressure.

Decks in Firetech Class (61):