Flashcards in WH1 Vocab. Unit 2 (China/Islam) Deck (41):
Sima Qian was an early Han historian who was known for the first government sponsored history book and his own castration due to defending a general who defected or was captured by the Xiongnu/Mongolians. Like his father he was the Prefect of the Grand Scribes. He incorporated moral lessons into stories and tales on right thinking.
the Silk Road
“began as a route designed to bring back strong horses from Central Asia (to bolster the Chinese military) but evolved into a series of trade routes connecting East Asia with the Middle East and the West
Civil Service Exam
This was a test that determined the ability for a career based on one's understanding of Confucian ideals. This started during the Tang Dynasty. This ensured that the Chinese Bureaucracy was rooted with COnfucian idelas
Buddhism was a Indian religion that migrated to China through influences through the Silk Road. Buddhism came to China during the rule of the Tang Dynasty. Buddhism was a monotheistic philosophy that was based on the spiritual guidance and enlightenment of Buddha. Buddhism was the only religion that was open to accept other ideas.
Pure Land Buddhism
Pure Land Buddhism is the idea if you can achieve enlightenment, you can be born into the Pure Land. The Pure Land is where there will be fewer distractions and more guidance from Buddha himself and other Bodhisattvas.
This is a variation of Buddhism that includes the ideas of Taoism. This is also known as Zen Buddhism.
This was the capital of the Tang Dynasty and some other succeeding dynasty. This was also the capital and the center of intellectual and commercial life of the Tang Dynasty. 30 sq. miles, 2million people. This was known its 18 ft. defensive walls, grid-like road layout, wide roads, ginormous wards, two huge markets over 400 acres each, various buildings and booths, and artistic events in the parks.
Foot binding was a practice where feet were bound in a way which made women more reliable on men. This practice was much worse than plastic surgery since it made walking painful and it effected women's unhealthy constriction, mobility and overall health and plummeted the worth of women. This practice made women seem more diminutive and delicate as favored by pop culture. Ironically it started with a dance trying to strengthen her feet and made them into crescent shapes. It started with aristocrats, then wealthy, then the general population. Women voluntarily participated as it displayed wealth and beauty and only few men questioned it. In addition, mothers wanted for their daughters what they didn't have for themselves.
Ban Zhao was an important writer on Confucian women's principles and roles. While women were considered unworthy of an education on Confucian texts, was educated by her literate mother. She took over the position as court historian when brother Ban Gu died and eventually became imperial historian. She is known for her "Nü Jie" Lessons for Women with sections on Humility, Husband and Wife, Respect and Caution, Womanly Qualifications, and Implicit Obedience
Neo-Confucianism is a mix of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism created by philosopher Zhu Yi during the Song Dynasty. This was caused by a reinvigorated interest in Confucian morales and texts. This rise coincided with Buddhism's decline. Important ideas include trying to "repossess the Way", self-cultivation of one’s personal character, acting less selfishly, respecting rules and regulations, and one-sided obligations of obedience and compliance of subject to ruler.
"Rightly Guided Caliphs." This refers to the era (632-661) of where the Succession of Muhammad started.
Islam= complete and total submission to Allah
Muslim= a person who submits
Islam began in 624 CE when the Islamic calendar began. This period was distinctive because it was when the Hijra or "the Migration" started, when the Umma left Mecca to escape persecution.
the holy text of Islam and the exact recitations of Allah to Muhammad.
a chapter of the Qur'an. There were 114 Surahs.
A verse of the Qur'an.
the holy prophet of Islam, born in Mecca in 570 CE, father died 6 mo prebirth, mom died at 6, grandpa died at 8, orphaned to father Abu Talib, powerful Qurasyh clan head. At 22 he married 40 yr old Khadija. At age 40 610ce in Mt Hira near Mecca during the month of Ramadan he had first revelation with Jibril.
Died June 8, 632
a sacred and old black stone which is the shrine of Allah. the shrine is located near Mecca. A square structure surrounded by many idols.
Visitors circled the Ka'aba seven times, performed rituals in the area around the shrine, sacrificed animals, threw stones at a pillar to ward off evil, and gathered for contemplation nearby on the Plain of Arafat. Performing this combination of rituals was and is known as making the umrah. There were as many as 360 idols of many religions on the Ka'aba promoting polytheism vs. monotheism.
birthplace of Muhammad, site of the Ka'aba,
a town that was relatively Jewish. Muhammad was adopted here so someone could avenge his death, Muhammad got many followers from here as well.When the Umma moved here they renamed it Medina al-Nabi or "City of the Prophet"
Special month where Muhammad traveled to Mt. Hira to pray and fast. During this month he had his first revelation.
devine and supernatural encounter with usually something mythical.
Muhammad had his first revelation during the month of Ramadan at age 40.
a powerful family of Mecca whose son Uthman ibn Affan joined Muhammad's original group and later became a caliph. This family would also establish a caliphate and bring the fighting to a halt after Ali's demotion.
Mi'raj (the Night Journey)
in 620 muhammad has a dream where he is taken to heaven by Jibril and al-Baraq. Composed of Al-Isra, the Night Journey; Mi'raj, the Ascent, meeting the prophets, and negotiating 50 daily prayers down to 5
Known as the Migration caused by their persecution in Mecca so the group moved to Yathrib/Medina. Marked by year 622, this also started the Islam Calendar
Five Pillars of Faithh
These are five religious duties/activities held by Muslims
Shahada (1st Pillar of Faith)
1st pillar of faith. The Profession of Faith: a believer states that he or she believes there is only one god and he is Allah. Also marks the point when a man or women joined Islam.
Salat (2nd Pillar of Faith)
2nd Pillar of Faith. Daily prayers: these are made at 5 specific times throughout each day in Arabic. This is a physical representation of the two connected ideas of equality among people and submission to Allah.
Zakat (3rd Pillar of Faith)
3rd Pillar of Faith. Almsgiving to the Poor: a duty fulfilled by upper and middle class muslims where they must donate a certain percentage of their yearly income (Industry and business is 2.5%, farms 10-20%). This epitomizes the ideas of compassion and community and of compassion being more important than wealth.
Sawm (4th Pillar of Faith)
4th Pillar of Faith. Fasting: A muslim must not engage in eating, drinking, smoke, or engage in sexual activities during the daylight hours of the sacred month of Ramadan (not required to fast if they are ill, nursing or pregnant, very young, etc.). This helps wealthier people feel compassion for those less fortunate than themselves and to actively notice the things in their lives for which they ought to be grateful every day
Hajj (5th Pillar of Faith)
5th Pillar of Faith. The Pilgrimage to Mecca: it is encouraged that an able Muslim of health and money travel to Mecca at least once during their lifetime. Hajj is a complex set of rituals performed by Muhammad as well as countless pilgrims before him, allowing Muslims to follow the example of Muhammad, to experience a sense of the vastness and unity of the umma, and to reflect on the Islamic idea that the relationship between Allah and human beings has existed since mankind was created.
Means "struggle" in arabic. This refers to either an internal (usually) or external struggle and is best illustrated in the story of Muhammad and the Hijra.
means "to accept the oneness of Allah". This refers to how Islam is monotheistic and is illustrated when Muhammad destroyed all the idols at the Ka'aba.
“a successor to or representative of the Prophet.” This has more of a political connotation than a religious connotation convincing people that Abu Bakr, Muhammad's trusted, experienced, powerful advisor would be a better successor vs. Muhammad's nephew Ali.
Caliphate is a noun meaning both a leadership position (like the presidency) and the geographic area that the leader controls. The caliph is the person who rules the caliphate. Certain sects disagree on this vs Imamates and who was a legitimate ruler.
means "community leader" in Arabic. Does not have the connotation of including political duties but mostly of a religious leader. Muslims took this to believe Muhammad should be succeeded by his nephew Ali vs his experienced advisor Abu Bakr. This term can also refer to the land held by this ruler or even the reign of this ruler. Certain sects disagree on caliphates vs these and who was a legitimate ruler.
These were simply monotheists of other faith such as Christianity, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism. Under the rule of Umar, they were protected from safe from Muslim armies and also protected from invasion or harm by Muslims as long as they paid a special tax.
important tools to help understand the Quran and other documents such as the Miraj
"Party of Ali" simplified to "the Party'. This is a sect of Islam of which opposed the leadership of Damascus, finds Ali's tomb as an important pilgrimage site, believe in caliphates, and say legitimate leadership stems from hereditary relation to Muhammad's family (rejecting all the caliphate's not including Ali).
These were oppenents of the Shi'a or "Uthmanis". The more orthodox believe the first three caliphs were Rashidun but reformed believe that all caliphs were legitimate.