WH2 Semester 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in WH2 Semester 1 Deck (103):
1

Act of Supremacy

  • a document in which Enlgand claimed independence from the Holy Roman Emperor
  • marked the creation of the Anglican Church or English Church or Church or England
  • Executed under Henry VIII

2

Age of Reason

  • 17th century pgilosophical movements
  • beginning of the application of empiricism and reasoning
  • philisophical result of the advances of science

3

Agricultural Revolution

  • change in the production of farmed goods
  • Agricultural Revolution of 1050
    • a series of technological breakthroughs that allowed Europeans to produce food easier and more efficiently.
  • increased food output> larger population> increased trafe> more money in economy
  • led to urban revolution
  • helped Europe modernize

4

Anabaptists

  • Part of the radical reformation
  • believed in adult-only baptism
  • drew support from middle class artisans and lower class men
    • especially Zwingli

5

Anglicanism

  • Church of England
  • erected during the Protestant Reformation
  • created by Henry VIII
  • A political move that allowed England to liberate themselves from the Roman Catholic Church
  • a result of his failed annullment with the Roman Catholic Church

6

Antiquity

  • the ancient past; period before the Middle Ages
  • the predominant time period in which Humanist ideas were brought from
  • big theme of Humanism is appreciating texts of the antiquity

7

Aristocrats/Nobility

  • highest class
  • held control of florence w/wealth, political councils, trade routes, influence
  • Some did mot work for their money but through inheritance and the passage of land (feudal land=power).
  • Others got power through market economy

8

Artisans

  • a worker in a skilled trade
  • Primarily composed the minor guilds

9

Peace of Augsburg

  •  treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League
  • officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups
  • made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire.

10

Banking Guild

  • lent money to many tradesmen and guilds workers to start their own businesses by sharing risks and using the idea of interest,
  • unprecedented in any other Renaissance society
  • has many core values that stick with the banking industry on today
  • gained lots of economical and political power during the Renaissance

11

Baroque Art

  • characterized by energy, drama, and movement
  • special sensitivity to light
  • major patrons of religious images
  • especially Catholic

12

Bill of Exchange

  • a letter of credit based on the exchange of currencies
    • Measured against each other
  • Some would switch to a currency wait for a rise in value and switch back to original currency

 

13

Bishops

  • Sat in a given city and had control over a given region
  • many priests under him
  • Argued by protestants too have too much power/authority

14

Anne Boleyn

  • Part of the affair with Henry VII
  • part of reason for the creation of the Anglican church
  • 2nd wife
  • killed for suspected adultery with her brother

15

Byzantine Empire

  • Rival to the Italians and was involved in their Italian trades

16

John Calvin

  • Founder of Calvinism
  • studied law and humanities in University of Paris
  • had religious crisis in early adulthood similar to Luther

Calvinism

  • Shares great deal with Lutheranism
  • sinfulness of human beings
  • lack of free will
  • justification by faith
  • baptism and communion
  • but big difference was predestination

17

Catherine of Aragon

  • Henry VIII's first wife
  • originally Henry's brother's wife...
  • marriage was anulled
  • daughter of holy roman emperor

18

Catholicism

  • split into the east and western churches with the fall of the Roman Empire
  • a belief that became dominant as of the fall of the Roman Empire

19

Christendom

  • the worldwide body of Christians
  • increased in size during the Middle Ages with the fall of the Roman Empire

20

Charles I (England)

  • Son of James I
  • seceded James I following his death
  • dissolved Parliament and was weak in financial and administrative affairs
  • had to control Church of England and
  • tried to control the Parliament
  • defeated by Oliver Cromwell and the New Model Army 

21

Charles V (Holy Roman Empire)

  • called for Luther to offer his defense against papal decree at Diet of Worms

22

Clement VII

  • a Medici Pope
  • Rejected King Henry VIII's request to annul his marriage, also not disgracing his family via Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

23

Nicolaus Copernicus

  • Wrote De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium
  • believed in the heliocentric model over  the geocentric model
  • used observation and empiricism

24

Council of Trent

  • Part of the Counter Reformation
  • document that banned all books involving Luther or heresy 

25

Counter Reformation

  • name given to the policies introduced by the Roman Catholic Church as its official response to the Protestant Reformation.
  • very successful

26

Dark Ages

  • 500-800 AD, Europe without a government which resulted in political chaos
  • Europe defaulted to a much more disorganized structure that struggled to gain stability
  • Catholic CHurch became the prime unifying force
    • also became incredibly rich

27

Diet of Worms

  • Called by the Holy Roman Emperor
  • asked Luther to offer his defense against papal decree at Diet of Worms
  • in which Martin Luther argued with a canon on the church, its powers, and its motives
  • although Luther used reasoning, the church defaulted on it authority.

28

Duomo

 

29

Elizabeth I

30

Empiricism

31

English Civil War

32

Erasmus

33

Famine

34

Feudalism

35

Florence

36

Gold Florins

37

Galileo

38

Geocentric Model

Geocentric Model

 

39

Giotto

40

Major Guilds

41

Minor Guilds

42

Heavy Plow

43

Heliocentric Model

44

Henry VIII

45

Henry IV of France

46

Thomas Hobbes

47

Holding Company

48

Homage/Fealty

49

Humanism

50

Christian Humanism

51

Hundred Years War

52

Ignatius of Loyola

53

Indulgences

54

James I

55

Jesuits

56

Knights

57

Leo X

58

Letter of Credit

59

John Locke

60

Long Parliament

61

Martin Luther

62

Niccolo Machiavelli

63

Mary I

64

Massacio

65

The Medicis

66

Merchants

67

Michelangelo

68

Miserabili

69

Missionaries

70

Monasticism/Monks

Monks:

  • Worshipped, read and did manual labor; read pslams, prayers, etc. for almost all of the day, lived in monasteries
  • Men of monasteries
  • the church benefited from the work of monks.

Monasticism:

  • allowed men and woman (monks and nuns) to withdraw from society and consider their own spirituality in a peaceful manner
  • Helped to build the reputation of the church
  • served as havens across Europe and to take in wayward travelers, provided food and shelter to those in need, and generally made visitors feel physically and spiritually safe

71

Ninety-Five Theses

72

New Model Army

73

Oliver Cromwell

74

Palazzo del Signori

75

Peasant's Revolt

76

Peasant's/Serfs

77

Petition of Right

78

Petrarch

79

Plague/Black Death

80

Phillip II of Spain

81

Ponte Vecchio

82

Pope/Papcy

83

Prince Federick

84

Printing Press

85

Protestansim

86

Puritansim

87

Renaissance Man

88

Protestant Reformation

89

Republic

90

Rump Parliament

91

Sacraments

92

Santa Maria Novella

93

Scientific Revolution

94

Signory

95

Social Mobility

96

Spanish Armada

97

Thirty Years War

98

Three-field System

99

Treaty of Westphalia

100

Vassals

101

Wittenberg

102

Wool Guild

103

Ulrich Zwingli