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Flashcards in "The Andreas Cheat Sheet: 2" Deck (163):
1

Umayyad Caliphate

692-750 CE: Ruled by a caliph, first caliph was uthman, the caliphate began to establish a political, artistic and cultural legacy in the areas it had conquered, influences by Byzantine, Greek, Persian traditions, Arabic language, created Dome of the Rock, allowed different religions to be followed freely, grew at west as Spain and east as Iran,

2

Mawali

New converts to Islam, occupied positions of power and wealth, treated as social inferiors, could work as soldiers, could not marry Arab women

3

Jizya

A tax paid by the non-believers of Islam

4

Abbasid Caliphate

750-1258 CE: founded by non-Arab Muslims and Shi'a Muslims becuase of contreversy of Umayyad clan, took name from early supporter of the Prophet, center of power where Arab and Iranian cultures conjoin to produce period for philosophy, science, and literature, had Golden Age for all fields of studies (see Golden Age of Baghdad and House of Wisdom)

5

House of Wisdom

University, primary symbol of the glory of the Abbasid Baghdad, Greek and Indian works made way to Islamic culture, translated works of Plato, Aristotle

6

Golden Age of Baghdad:
Astronomy
Medicine
Diet

A period of unrivaled intellectual activity in all fields: science, technology, and literature (particularly biography, history, and linguistics)

Astronomy: collected and corrected previous astronomical data, built the world's first observatory, and developed the astrolabe, an instrument used in astronomy, geography and navigation.

Medicine: they experimented with diet, drugs, surgery, and anatomy, and in chemistry, scientists isolated and studied a wide variety of minerals and compounds

Diet: transformed the diet of medieval Europe by introducing such plants as plums, artichokes, apricots, cauliflower, celery, and fennel, as well as rice, sorghum, new strains of wheat, the date palm, and sugarcane.


7

Fiqh

an Islamic philosophy of jurisprudence, four schools: Hanafi, Shafi'i, Miliki, Hanbali, studied Qur'an closely to find guidance about social and political instituitions, observed customs of Muslims in Medina, showed people how to live

8

Hadith

Account of Muhammed's words and actions, published in volumes, some are considered with isnad, a description of the origin

9

Shari'a

Islamic law discussions of legal scholars and fiqh, “Shar’ia covers all sorts of situations, including: prayer, zakat, fasting, marriage, divorce, slavery, business partnerships and contracts, debt, wills, etc”

10

Itjihad

the individual judgement based upon reason, was debated upon between the Sunni and Shi'a to answer the questions of who makes the decision if that decision is not clearly stated in the Qu'ran, says that the leader could make their own judgement without consent, but the leader had to have a good reason behind it

11

Mujtahid

the scholars that used the idea of itjihad, scholars had to be very familiar with the Quran and know the philosophy of fijh.

12

Ulama

the people that held spiritual authority in the beliefs of Sunni Muslims, generally worked as teachers, judges and various sorts of bureaucrats, worked for their teachers in a sort of apprenticeship position, became personally attached to teachers ulama became powerful political forces throughout the Islamic world, could give legitimacy to a caliph or undermine his authority, became head bureaucrats, judges, lawmakers or powerful oppositional forces that could also influence the government. gain favor with the ulama and bolster their claims to power



13

Sufis

Practioners of Sufism, scholars define as a science whose objective is reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God, generally believed to have originated among Muslims near Basra, Iraq, characterized by their particular attachment to dkihr/remembrance, arose among a number of Muslims a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate, chief aim is to seek the pleasing of God by working to restore within themselves the primordial state of fitra, described in Qur'an, must learn from teachera, are unanimous in agreeing that Sufism cannot be learned through books, to reach highest levels of success in Sufism, disciple live with and serve the teacher for many years


14

Al-Andalus

The center of Arabic Spain, influenced of Islamic learning and also had European influence in religion, architecture, and government

15

Battle of Tours

732 CE, In southwestern France where the Muslims and the Franks fought for the control of Spain, the Franks overpowered the Muslims in the final battle

16

Abd al-Rahman III

750 CE, The ruler of the period that was called the Golden Age of Cordoba, one of the richest men in the Islamic world

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Reconquista

1250-1492 CE, Event that the Christians in Islamic Spain wanted to persuade Muslims to join their faith by forcing tax revenues and strip them of their posts

18

Iqta

A grant of the right to collect taxes on a certain area of land

19

Mawali

A person essentially adopted into a Muslim tribe

20

First Crusade

1096-1099 CE, Mission was to take back Jerusalem from the Muslims, result was success until the Muslims took back Jerusalem 15 years after Pope Urban II called for the crusade

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Mawdud

An officer who was appointed to the post of governer to Jerusalem after the First Crusade and drive out the Europeans

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Zengi

1128-1146 CE, Governor of Monsul, expanded rule for the Muslims, most powerful commander in syria, went to Damscus to fight the Crusaders and defeated one of the Crusaders' states, used jihad against Europeans,

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Nur ad-Din

1146-1174 CE, succeeded Zengi and continues legacy of Zengi, became most respected of the Muslim world

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Second Crusade

1145-1449 CE, Mission was to take back Damascus, called by Pope Eugene III, failed because they instead fought non-Christian neighbors, wanted to take over Iberian Peninsula, instead stopped in Spain to try to control Lisbon against the Muslims

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Third Crusade

1189-1192 CE, Mission was to take back Acre, reached agreement for Jerusalem and defeated in Acre, led by Saladin

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Saladin

1174-1193 CE, Led Third Crusade, Kurdish Muslim who took over Egypt and Fatimied throne, helped take other some Europeans areas and mainly take over Jerusalem

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Kurdish

Sect of Islamic religion, that differs from Sunni and Shi'a, Saladin was one

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Yuan Dynasty

1279-1368 CE, First Mongol-rule dynasty of China, was very successful in taking over land and controlling people, but did not have the military equipment to protect themselves, which was their downfall along with the bubonic plague and rebellions, no influence of Chinese culture

29

Genghis Khan

1206-1227 CE, Help to overtake the Chinese and take over China to create the Yuan Dynasty, unified the divided tribes of Mongolia to take over China

30

Khubilai Khan

1241-1268 CE, Help expanded the influence of Genghis and took over the Tibetian area of China, help bring down the Song dynasty

31

Marco Polo

1254-1324 CE, Traveler in Yuan Dynasty who explores from Italy to China and back, born in family of merchants

32

bubonic plague

1334-1347 CE, Black Death, disease that was carried by rats and fleas throughout Europe and Asia, led to downfall of Yuan Dynastydisease that wrecked havoc throughout Europe and Asia, caused the decline of the Mongol Empire, spread due to the Silk Road, reported in cavaranseries

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pax mongolica

reason that the bubonic plague spread more east and west and led to the bubonic plague spreading to Europe and Asia

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spice trade

trade of spices between the Java and the Yuan Dynasty that helped to end the reign of the Yuan Dynasty

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Ibn Battuta

1304-1375 CE, Traveler who took similar route to China as Marco Polo, Sunni Muslim

36

khanates

4 main terroties that were divided by land from Russia, China, and the Middle East

37

Nishapur

In northeastern Iran, where Mongols killed all of the people by cutting off their heads

38

Golden Horde

Territory ruled by Batu that was Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria

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Volga River

where capital of the Golden Horde was along

40

Hulagu

1250-1258 CE, brother of Khubilai, destroyed major centers of Islamic power, killed ulama, destroyed Baghdad and last Abbasid Caliphate,

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Mosul

In Iraq, center for artistic metalworking; non-productive for over 40 years with Mongol rule

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Tatar

The group of Mongols who lived in the Golden Horde

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Mamluks

Lived in Syria and Egypt, fended off Mongol Conquest, unified, organized, disciplined, similar weapons to Mongols,

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Ilkhanate

One of four territories/khanates in Iraq and Iran

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Ilkhan

Ruled by the Ilkhanate, representative of the Great Khan in China

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Chaganai Khanate

1370 CE, Khanate consisting of Afghanistan, Pakistan, Chinese province of Xinjiang

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Ilkhan Ghazan

1295-1304 CE, Sponsored rebuilding of Muslim cities, irrigation systems, land for agriculture, reestablish trade with China via Silk Road, Sunni Muslim

48

Rashid al-Din

Created first world history, Conpendium of Histories

49

Timur

Gained control of Chagatai Khanate by 1370, attacked and destroyed Delphi, Aleppo, Damascus, Ankara, sacked Isfahan

50

Wei-so system

Guard unit of 5,600 men, reported directly to the Ministry of War, scattered along frontiers of dynasty

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Mou

Measure unit for land in Ming Dynasty

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Tun-tein system

Created small military settlements, provided quick access to soldiers, up to one million soldiers

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Manchu

Descendants of the people who ruled North China as Jin Dynasty, unified under single leader, conquered Korea, allied with Mongols, gained contol of China after Ming decline

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queu

Ponytail on men that were used as a sign of loyalty to the emperor

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Koutouing

Part of psuedoreligious ceremomies of Confucian ideas which also included incense

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Tributary system

Made relations for China, outsiders who wanted to interact with China comercially or diplomatically have to give the Emperor a formal request

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Canton system

Traders lived offshore of China during the trading season, formed hongs with specific traders, overseen by a hoppo

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Hong

Group of traders that formed companies with specific traders, bought items from Europeans

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Hoppo

Official that oversees the Canton system, worked directly for the Emperor

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Lord Macartney

Tried to kiss Emperor's hand during his formal request from Britain, seen as unacceptable, refused British from trading for 50 years

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Opium

A smoking product that was thrived in China and brought to China by the British, important for the trading between the British and the Chinese and led to many wars between them

62

Comissioner Lin

1839 CE, Was sent by China to stop the opium trade, led to the Opium War

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Opium War

1839-1842 CE, A war caused by the stoppage of the opium trade, led to many British ships and soldiers attacking many Chinese cities

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Treaty of Nanking

1842 CE, Treaty between the British and the Chinese that allowed the British to get five more ports for trade, Hong Kong, pay for damages and debts, and pay 21 million for lost opium

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Sino-Japanese War

1895 CE, War that the Japanese defeated the Chinese and got Korea, Russia and Japan started to attack northeasterm China

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Most-favored-nation status

Law that said whatever gains were granted to one country have to be given to all of the other countries for trading purposes

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Extraterritoriality

Law that said foreigners in Cina were tried under their own law system by their own judges

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Spheres of influence

Principle were missionaries who traveled deep into China and converting other to act outside the law

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Taiping Rebellion

1851-1864, led by Hong Xiuquan, goal was to bring about Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peacaby by restoring China into moral unity, captured several cities, and no use of opium, tobacco, wine, men and women separate, women treated poorly, Qing ended after 20 million died

70

Boxer Rebellion

1898-1901 CE, Goal was to eradicate Christianity in China and restoration of Qing power, invaded and looted Beijing, killing Christians and Western missionaries

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Self Strengthening

1860s CE, Improve Chinese dealings with other countries by increasing military strength

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Hundred Days reform

1898 CE, Reforms influenced by Japanese and Western ideas, created University of Beijing, changed civil service exams and elimanated government positions

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Sun Zhongshan

1912 CE, Creator of the Revive China Society and later the Revolutionary Alliance

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Revolutionary Alliance

1905 CE, Zhongsuan and Yatsen that led to having a Chinese revolution and representative government

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Yuan Shikai

Made a deal that resulted in the abdication of the Qing emperor and formation of a republic in China

76

Nationalist Party

Political party of the Revolutionary Alliance, enemies of the Communist Party

77

New Culture movement

1915 CE, Questioning of the Confucin values and Chinese culture, advocated individualism and personal freedom, inspired,in youths

78

May 4th Movement

1919 CE, Movement where China sent laborers to help support the Allies and hoped Shandong would come to back China

79

Marxism

Ideas of class struggle and struggles with European and Japanese influence, inspired for Mao Zedong

80

Mao Zedong

1893-1976 CE, Leader of the Communist Party and inspired many bad things to China, enemies with the Nationalist Party,

81

Chinese Communist Party

Led by Mao Zedong, created in 1921, was a significant part of 20th century China

82

Northern Expedition

1922-1926 CE, Alliance of Nationalists and Communists to unify China under Nationalist control

83

Jiang Kai-Shek

1926 CE, The new leader of the Nationalist Party after Sun Yatsen

84

Long March

1934-1935 CE, Movement of Communists from southern to northern China led by Mao Zedong, treated women harshly, allowed Mao Zedong to become a better leader of the Communist Party

85

Rape of Nanking

1937 CE, 20,000 women raped, source of tension between Japan and China,

86

United Front

Allianc between Communsists and Nationalists to help fight against Japan, ended when Nationalist attacked Communists

87

October 1, 1949

Day of annoucement for Mao Zedong, the new government would be The People's Republic of China

88

Capitalism

Economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit

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Labor theory of value

System that means that workers are the people who determine the price of a product, not the owners

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Free market

Market that determines the price of a product based on its owners

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The Communist Manfesto

1848 CE, Handbook written by Karl Marx to show the nature of the capitalist system and how the system was unfair and destructive to human society

92

Communism

Call from liberal capitalism, system felt would lead to inevitabl self destruction of capitalism, Idea that led the People's Republic of China

93

Bourgeois

Means group of people in modern society who owns the place where things are produced and who pay people by the hour for their work

94

Prolaterians

People who have no way to produce things on their own, and have ro sell labor to survive

95

Conflict in Korea

1950-1953 CE, Korea divided by 38th parallel, Kim il Sung attacled South to try to reunite Korea, instead had CCP and US against each other, secured dominance of China

96

Five Year Plan

1953-1957 CE, The rebuilding of the Communist govt. and with the help of the USSR help to double output of steel and electricity and quadruple production of steel

97

Great Leap Forward

1958-1959 CE, Where China tried to outdistance the USSR in economic development, industrial focus involved building public work projects canals, bridges, reversiors, power stations, etc., had positive effect, but party unity and agriculture programs were a disaster

98

Hundred Flowers Period

1956-1957 CE, Called by Mao, Objective was to improve and strengthen China and the party through constructive criticism, result was that the intellectuals were accused of anti-Party sentiments

99

Anti-Rightist Campaign

1956-1957 CE, Result of the Hundred Flowers Period, 3 million people were accused of harboring old, pro-capitalist ideas, 500,000 sent to rural areas for re-education through labor, others kept their jobs but lost all prestige and influence, lesson to those who wished to critique the Party and Mao, result was that the Great Leap Forward was deemed a disaster

100

Cultural Revolution

1966-1976 CE, Movement by Mao as a result of the negative effects of the Great Leap Forward, schools closed, students devoted time to Red Guard activities, including studying philosophy of Mao, traveling country in Long-March like fashion, rallies held,

101

Famine

1959-1962 CE, Three year period of malnutrition of Chinese due to farmers not having the right to move enough food to the cities, 30 million peasants starved, result from Great Leap Forward

102

Jiang Qing

Wife of Mao, began campaign against arts and other forms of expression that supported feudalism and capitalism by creating romanticized depictions of the pre-Communist past, led to student protests and student groups known as Red Guards

103

Four Modernizations

1977 CE, Idea created by Zhou Enlai, supported by Deng Xiaoping, unsupported by Jiang Qing and Gang of Four for being pro-capitalist, called for changes in agriculture, industry, science, technology, and defense, peasants allowed to sell extra produce in free markets, commune system was completely dismantled, local towns could invest in industrial venues, exports were encouraged

104

One Child Rule

1979 CE, Result of Deng's conviction that at the current rate of growth, China in a short time would be unable to feed or educate its populace, rules were that couples in cities may only have one child, couples in rural areas may have 2 or more children, couples who want more than 1 child must space them 3 or 4 years apart, school fees high enough to make extra children difficult to educate and support in rural areas, couples with extra children are subject to fines

105

Tiananmen Square Massacre

1989 CE, Result of death of Hu Yaobang, political and economic liberal, criticized by Communists and resulted in protests and full-blown protests in Beijing by students and intellectuals, movement also with a hunger strike, death toll 3,000 people, resulted in Deng retired as head of the Central Military Committee

106

shaykh

Sufi teacher

107

Safavids

Began as a Sufi order and lived under the Safavid dynasty, came from the region of Azerbaijan and conquered Iran and changed Shi'a Islam for modern Muslims

108

Qizilbash

Turkish tribal soldiers that aided the Safavid in fighting the Christian and Muslim rulers on their rise to power

109

Isma'il

1501 CE, Founder of the Safavid dynasty, changed the state religion to Shi'ism and adopted former rights and rules from the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, made wide us of slave soldiers, claimed to be a mahdi

110

Mahdi

Idea of claiming to be an imam, Isma'il calimed to be one but was questioned as the Ottoman Empire repelled several Safavid attacks

111

Ottoman Empire

1299-1922 CE, Biggest dynasty in the Middle East and Eastern Europe region, the enemy of the Safavid dynasty, repelled many Shi'a Muslim attacks who would create the Safavid had many groups separate from them during the decline of the empire including the Turks

112

Ja'Fari (Twelver) Shi'ism

Largest branch of the Shi'a Islam, official religion of the Safavid dynasty, help to benefit the Safavid and the Shi'a Ulama and helped import familial ties to the Hajj

113

Waqf

Land used for religious purposes, distributed to immigrants of the Safavid and helped strengthen the religious effect on the Safavid dynasty, built Shi'a madrasas and important shrines

114

Muharram

Major religious ten day festival commemorating al-Husayn's death that is associated with the Ramadan, showed change from the importance of the Hajj to Muharram signified the change to persecuting Sufi muslims

115

Caravanseries

Inns for travelers and their animals created by Shah Abbas' government, opened up trade and economic growth to the Safavid dynasty

116

Wahhabi'ism

Ultra-conservative branch of Islam that emphasizes fundamentals of Islam such as the importance of the Qu'ran and the Hadith, one of the calls from Sufi'ism to say that Shi'ism wasn't the legitimate religion

117

Muhammad ibn al-Wahab

Joined forces with the il Sa'ud to insist the pilgrimages were worshipping various imams, Muhammad, Ali, and Sufi saints and minor gods, rules over Saudi Arabia and is the basis of its current naming, contrasted Islam's basis of monotheism causing a raid and desecrations of many shrines and idols

118

Idolatry

Worshipping of idols and the extreme love of something or someone, used to describe the polytheistic tendencies and was eventually used to justify the destruction and desecration of various shrines

119

1979 Iranian Revolution

Fight between the secular Wahhabites and the fundamentalist Shi'a and Shah, fueled by the feud between the Wahabbites and the Shi'a, final and biggest confrontation between the two

120

Khums

One-fifth tax

121

Suleyman 1

1520-1566 CE, Tenth and longest-serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman reached its peak and became a world power, considered one of the most significant rulers in the world, regarded as the perfect Muslim ruler, one whom embodied all the necessary characteristics of an Islamic leader, known as the Lawgiver, expanded military empire, helped Istanbul embark on vast cultural and architectural projects, cultivator of the arts, also known as a conqueror, major player in the politics of Europe wanted to destabilize Roman Catholic Church and Holy Roman Empire, pursued policy of helping any Muslim country threatening by European expansion

122

Janissaries

17th centrury CE, Military arm of the Ottoman government, slowly took over the military and administrative posts in the government, passed these offices on to their sons, result was Ottoman ruled by a military feudal class

123

Peace Treaty of Karlowitz

1699 CE, Ended period of Austrian negotiations, Ottomans handed Austria provinces of Hungary and Transylvania

124

Shah Abbas

Lead the cultural and military apex of Safavid Dynasty, revitalized the Safavid military through the use of new Georgian and Armenian slaves, the acquisition of new weapons and the reclamation of lands that had been in the hands of military officers, improved economy by establishing factories to produce valuable trade goods, built caravansaries and Isfahan

125

Crimean War

1854-1856 CE, First major Ottoman war, Russia slowly annexing Muslim states in Central Asia, Russia found near banks of the Black Sea, Russians went to war with Ottomans because they had granted Catholic France the right to protect Christian sites in the Holy Land rather than Orthodox Russia, Britain and France allied with Ottomans, ended badly for Russia, Ottoman saw itself as being heavily controlled by Europeans

126

World War 1

1914-1919 CE, War between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers, result of the Ottoman territories that fell into European hand precipitating a crisis among European powers

127

Allied Powers

Countries of France, Russia, British Empire, later Italy and the United States, defeated Central Powers

128

Central Powers

Countries of Austria-Hungary, German empire, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire, was defeated by Allied Powers

129

Western Front

Most of the fighting in World War 1 took place here, two systems of trenches and fortifications, separated by an unoccupied space between the trenches called no man's land

130

Eastern Front

Vast eastern plains of southern Russia and the northern Ottoman Empire, scale of conflict just as large, characterized by a limited railroad network, prevented a trench warfare stalemate from developing as it did in the west

131

Treaty of Versailles

1919 CE, Result of conflict in Eastern Front, Ottomans lost all territory in Syria, Palestine, Arabia, Mesopotamia, European powers fought each other in Africa and the Middle East by encouraging revolution among the peoples there, showed end of the Ottoman Empire

132

Young Turks

1920s CE, Liberal nationalists who wished to adopt Western style governments, began an open revolt against the Ottoman government, goal of revolution was to modernize and westernize Turkey

133

Mustafa Kemal/Ataturk

1922-1928 CE, Father of the Turks, introduced a series of legislative reforms that adopted European legal systems and civil codes and thus overthrew both the Shari'a and the kanun, legislated against the Arabic call to prayer and eliminated the caliphate and all the mystiacl Sufi orders of Islam, first to theorize and put into practice the secularization of the Islamic state and society

134

Palestine

Region most important in the Arab-Israeli conflict, includes modern-day Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria

135

Hezbollah

Extremist Shiite Muslim group that has close links with Iran, created after 1979 Iranian revolution, controlled southern Lebanon

136

HAMAS

Palestinian Sunni Islamic organization,and founded to establish Palestinian state incorporating present-day Israel and the West Bank

137

pogroms

an organized massacre of a particular ethnic group

138

Sephardim

Muslim Jew areas

139

Ashenazim

European Jew areas

140

Zionism

1870-1914 CE, Movement to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine, promoted by Moses Hess, Alfred Dreyfus, thought it would be both a good investment and an act of Christian piety

141

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence

1915-1916 CE, Series of letters between the British High commissioner of Egypt and the leader of Mecca and other parts of the Arabian Peninsula, suggested Britain support an independent Arab-led caliphate in some portion of Palestine in exchange for an Arab uprising against the Ottoman Empire

142

Sykes-Picot Agreement

1916 CE, Between France and Britain, concluded secret treaty dividing Ottoman lands between their two countries effective at the conclusion of the fighting, French got Syria, Lebanon, northern Iraq, British got Jordan, Iraq, and part of northern Israel, southern half of current-day Israel international zone, British mad most of the decisions

143

Balfour Declaration

1917 CE, Statement said that Britain would support a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine, so long as it did not endanger the rights of the current Arab inhabitants

144

Churchill White Paper

1922 CE, Created by a committee sent to Palestine, clarifies the British's government position on both the Balfour Declaration and on the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence

145

Pan Salavic movement

1875 CE, Goal was the unification of all Slavic peoples from Austria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire, into a single political unity under the protection of Russians

146

Arab Revolt

1936-1939 CE, Palestinian Arabs began general strike and no paying of taxes to protest high levels of Jewish immigrants and land sales, afraid of becoming a religious and ethnic minority in their own land, demanded immediate elections, strike suspended when Peel Commission researched situation, after resumption there was armed resistance, attacks on trains and attacks on Jewish neighborhoods and individuals, British had detentions of suspects, razing of houses, executions and exiles of many Arab leaders, implicitly supported Jewish military organization Haganah, faction of Irgun responded to Arab violence with counterattacks on Arab individuals, several thousand Arabs and several hundred Jews and 200 Britons killed

147

Peel Commission Partition Plan

1937 CE, Peel Commission called for partition of Palestine and creation of two independent states: one Arab and one Jewish, Jerusalem would be international control, Jews and Arabs would move from one section to another in order to create homogeneous populations in each area, Arabs rejected plan seeing plan as extremely ominous, Jews were divided

148

MacDonald White Paper

1939 CE, British commission made recommendations, said that goal of Balfour Declaration was met, region had to be an independent Arab/Jewish state within 10 years, Jewish immigration to Palestine to be limited to 75,000 over next 5 years, British High Commissioner would have ability to limit or end land sales to Jewish immigrants

149

Resolution 181

1947 CE, UN General Assembly voted in favor of partition of Palestine, Arab Liberation Army worked with Syria within Palestine against Jewish settles, Palestines was partition as their only chance for independence

150

Israeli Independence/Israeli War of Independence

1948 CE, Arab armies attacked Israeli, Jerusalem became international protectorate of the UN, national boundaries ended up being substantially different that those suggested in original partition, 600,000 Arabs turned into refugees, end was Resolution 194

151

Resolution 194

1948 CE, Passed by UN General Assembly, gave Palestinian refugees the right to cross the border and reclaim their homes or accept compensation for them

152

Suez Crisis

1956 CE, Abdel Nassar, president of Egyptian government, had goals to dissolute the Jewish state and the construction of the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, Egypt purchased weapons from communist countries and had raids in Gaza Strip, US and Britain reneged on their promise from Egypt to help pay for construction of dam, French were angered by Egypt's support for anti-French fighters, Egypt nationalized the Canal, Israel attacked Egypt, English and French tries to maintain peace between warring sides

153

Six Day War

1967 CE, Southern Syria served as base for periodic attacks on Israel, Egypt wanted UN forces stationed in Sinai be removed because they wanted to be able to re-arm their border with Israel, Egypt closed Straits of Tiran, Jordan, Iraq, and Syria entered conflict against Israel, Israel had Sinai Peninsula, Gaza, Golan Heights, West Bank, UN had cease fire to end conflict, 500,000 Palestinians found themselved uprooted living as refugees, end was Resolution 242

154

Resolution 242

1967 CE, Stated that Israel must leave territory it acquired in the war, every state in the region had the right to independent existence and that all regional citizens had the right to live in peace within clearly delineated national boundaries

155

1972 Munich Olympics

Arabs forced negotiations with Israel after plane hijacking and killing of 9 athletes

156

Yom Kippur War/Ramadan War

1973 CE, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Uganda, Cuba, decided to attack Israel to regain territory lost during Six Day War, IDF with US weapons repelled attacks and pressed into Syria and Egypt, resulted in conflict ending with negotiations between Israel, US, USSR, and Egypt

157

Camp David Accords

1978 CE, Peace agreement by Egypt and Israel with mediation by Jimmy Carter US President, Egypt recognized Israel's independence

158

Invasion of Lebanon

1982 CE, Israel launched attacks on Lebanon to destroy guerrilla bases, Palestinian Liberation Organization set up operations in Beirut after leaving Jordan because of violent clashes with the government and moved again to Tunisia, Lebanese Christian militia gained access to Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, killed 2,000 refugees, Israeli Defense Minister forces to resign after being indirectly responsible for the massacre

159

First Intifada

1987-1993 CE, Single incident in Gaza Strip gave rise to mass uprising by Palestinians, fighting between Israelis and Palestinains and deaths of 1,000 people, mostly Palestinian

160

Oslo Accords

1993 CE, Israeli president, Yitzhak Rabin and Yassir Arafat negotiated in secret with US President Bill Clinton, agreed that Palestinians would end the Intifada, Israel began withdrawing from West Bank and Gazam, PLO would have limited powers of self-government in part of territories

161

Second Oslo Accords

1995 CE, Increased Palestinian self-rule and elections

162

Assassination of Yitzak Rabin

1995 CE, Assassinated by Jewish extremist, HAMAS attacks led Israelis to elect more militant government in next elections: Benjamin Netanyahu

163

Second Intifada

2000 CE, Ariel Sharon, former Israeli Defense Minister made trip to Temple Mount in Jerusalem, after months of frustration and stalled talks led to protests, violence ensued and conflict escalated into full-scale armed conflict