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Flashcards in "The Andreas Cheat Sheet" Deck (79):
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Mi'raj

literally night journey, journey that Muhammed took with the angel Gabriel, went to Temple Mount in Jerusalem and went through various levels of Heaven meeting different prophets, asked Allah from fifty prayers a day to five prayers a day, reason why Jerusalem considered a holy city

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Muhammed

570-632 CE prophet of Allah, had many revelations that were written in the Qu'ran, preached in Mecca in Gabriel's words

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Chang'an

capital of the Tang Dynasty, center of intellectual and commercial life, surrouned by walls, roads divided city into wards, had two huge markets with aristocrats, had taverns, inns, pubs, worldwide artist performing outside marketplace

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Hijra

where Islamic calendar began in 622 CE, year of the migration, leaving Mecca to make a clean, radical break with the past, one could join no matter of background

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Yathrib

town where Muhammed escaped to after boycotts, Muhammed sought as expert peacemaker, agreed to defend one another

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Muslim

a person who submits, believes God to be the single, unified power behind all creation, one in every five people, influenced modern western world in government, architecture, philosophy, science, trade, etc.

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Chan Buddhism

a sect of Buddhism based in Daoist ideas, sometimes called zen Buddhism

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Silk Road

trading routes that connected the world of ancient China and the Middle East, silk was traded on route

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Mecca

considered holiest city of Islam, center of Islam culture, held the shrine of Ka'aba, where Muhammed started to preach and influenced people of other religions

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Ramadan

special holy month where Muhammed fasted in the cave

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Sima Qian

famous historian of ancient China, “his work focuses on the characteristics and actions of a very wide range of individuals that consistently mark their significance and their personality. As a result, the record of each person or event becomes of symbolic importance as well as part of the pageant of princes, warriors and romances that we are familiar with as narratives of the past”

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Buddhism

got to China via trade routes from central and east Asia, teaching of Buddha, to reach Enlightenment to shed one's desires and attachments to things on Earth, include Four Noble Truths

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Pure Land Buddhism

the primary sect of Buddhism in China, “enlightenment is difficult to achieve, and that a person who practices compassion and meditates on the nature of Buddhism can achieve rebirth in their next life into Pure Land, a place where there will be fewer distractions and more guidance from Buddha and the bodhisattvas, people who were one step away from Enlightenment



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Civil Service Examination

tested scholars' knowledge and understanding of Confucianism, ensured the entire Chinese bureaucracy was rooted in Confucianism values

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Qu'ran

holy text of Islam, written in the words echoed by Muhammed from the Alla

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Ka'aba

holy shrine in Mecca, Islam have to go to it at least once in their lifetime, must circle seven times and do rituals

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revelations

visions that Muhammed had in the cave that lead to Gabriel coming and taking him to the Seven Heavens

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Neo-Confucianism

a combination of Confucian thought, Buddhist teachings, and Daoism morality, the attempt to reposses the Way, incorporated into examination system

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Pan Gu

the first living being and the creator of all Chinese mythology, hatched from an egg

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Shang Yang

political philosopher from the state of Wei, brought ideas or basic tenets for what is now known as Legalism

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aristocrat

someone who is the best at a skill in s society or civilization

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lunar calendar

a calendar which they divided into twelve months based on the cycle of the moon to aid in the administration of agriculture

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Great Wall

one of Shi Huangdi's most major projects in his time of rule, used for defense against the Xoingnu of the North,

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Li Si

Shi Huandi's famous advisor, supported ideas of the Emperor, burned book and Legalism and Doaism in the dynasty, credited for killing scholars who criticized the Emperor's policy

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sexagismal

60, still used today in 60 second minute and in the 360 degrees in a circle

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The Two Handles

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Mesopotamia

ancient region of southwestern Asia, lying between the Tigris and the Euphrates River

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oracle bones

bones used in ancient China to write questions and answers to problems

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ideogram

a written character symbolizing the idea of a thing, without indicating the sounds used to say it

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pictographic writing

writing in the form of pictures

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One Hundred Schools of Thought

philosophers and schools that flourished during the Warring States period, know as the Golden Age of Chinese philosophy due to the thoughts and ideas were developed and discussed freely, had a lasting impact on Chinese civilizationnd political power, including Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism

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law

the system of rules that a particular community recgonizes as regulating the actions of its members and may enforce in penalties

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vassal

a holder of landby feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance, landowners in ancient China to the king, delegated to rule the fiefs by the king, part of the government of political alliances

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Legalism/Han Fei Zi

human nature was selfish, only way to preserve social order was to impose discipline and see a strict enforcement of laws, seeking proseprity over the welfare of the common people, greatly influenced the basis of imperial form of government, also marked new form of government

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Peking Man

fossil hominid, homo erectus found in Beijing, China who lived in times before Ancient China

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decimal

a system of numbers and arithmetic based in ten, tenths parts, and the powers of ten

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Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors

group of semi mythological rulers and culture heroes from ancient China, believed to use abilites to help create mankind and essential skills and knowledge

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feudalism

a system that connects political power and wealth to control over agricultural lands, had centralized taxation and political power, very similar to the vassals and feifs from ancient China to medival Europe in the Middle Ages

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fiefs

an estate of land, owned by the landowners/vassals of ancient China by the king

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Hanzi

Chinese characters which became their written language in all of the different dialects of China

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Daoism/Tao Zi

considered second most important stream of Chinese thought, the individual within the natural realm rather than the individual within society, goal of life for each individual is seeking to find themselves and adapting to rhythm of natural (and supernatural) world, to follow the Way (tao) of the universe, live in harmony, complement for daily lives, opposite of Confucianism morality

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shi

men who traveled from kingdom to kingdom to offer their service

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xian

administrative units that was governed by people appointed by the king who reported to the king

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vernuclar

language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region

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chieftainship

leadership, power and authority basedon concepts of kinship and responsibility

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division of labor

assignment of different parts of a process or task to different people in order to improve efficiency, evidence of more advanced civilization

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Mandate of Heaven

notion that the ruler was the "son of heaven" and governed by divine right grantd by Supreme God of Heaven, displaced by the Zhou from the Shang dynasty, central to Chinese ideas of political legtimacy

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Sumerians

member of non-Semitic people in ancient Babylon
oldest known written language
invented civilization, cuneiform writing, system of mathematics, city state, and their influence in art, literature, and theology

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flood myth

the destruction of the earth in a great flood

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junxian

jun was governed by a civil governor, a military leader, and an inspector, whose job was to make sure the governor was not corrupt, had paid salaries by the government, not taking a share of the tax revenues they collected, kept control of tax monies in the hands of the central government, was easier to get rid of bad officials

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abstract mathematics

the nature of numbers and processes involving numbers

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logographic

series of symbols thst represents a word or phrase

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Sima Qian

father of ancient Chinese historical records,

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Fengjian

government system where the king gave vassals fiefs to delegate the rule, thus the government becoming a system of interconnected familial and political alliances, similar to fuedalism

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Shang Dynasty

located in the Yellow River valley, was for about 500 years, had 30 kings and 5 diffent capitals, had walls surrounding the cities, had different houses depending on kind of aristocrats, king had centralized power, had languages of different dialects but same written characters, wrote on oracle bones

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Warring States Period

period where invansions occured during the time of the Zhou dynasty, an era of utter political chaos and disunity, happenned during 480-221 BC, also time of intensive technological and philosophical development

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quipu

a length of string onto which other strings were tied, strings differed in color and thickness, and were further differentiated from each other by knots

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Confucius/Confucianism

the body of thought that arguably had the most enduring effects on Chinese life, became the foundation of traditional society, believed that effective system of government were affect relationships between individuals, functions of government were facts of life to be sustained by ethnic values, wrote the Analects and had ideas based of morality and ethnics

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Neolithic

Relating to the later part of the Stone Age, period where animals were domesticated and agriculture was introduced

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ziggurat

rectangular stepped tower, temple

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monarchy

a form of government runned by a monarch, importance of the base of government back in ancient Mesopotamia

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hydraulic society

based on the centralized control of irrigation and flood management by government; water based

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hiearchy

a system in which people are ranked one above the other in order of status or authority
an arrangement of a classification of things

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bureaucratic

relating to the running of a business or an organization or government, kind responiblites inlcude royal granaries to store grain, oversight of tax and tribute collection, owning and managing herds of livestock, regulating trade and tribute from distant areas, and military operations involving thousands of soldiers

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cuneiform

wedge shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, mainly impress of clay tablets; writing system

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oral history

thr study of historical information using sounds recordings of interviews to know about past events; the base of how it was proved thst ancient China

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Rashidun

the period of the rightly guided caliphs that occured after the death of Muhammed from 632-661 CE

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surahs

chapters in the Quran, 114 chapters in the Quran

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ayat

verses in the Quran

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Five Pillars of Faith

Shahada: “the profession of faith, or Shahada, in which a believer states his or her belief that there is only one God (Allah, in Arabic) and that Muhammad is his messenger”

Salat: “The second pillar is Salat, or daily prayers. Prayers are made five times each day at specified times, in Arabic. Muslims kneel and prostrate themselves during prayer”

Zakat: “Zakat, or almsgiving to the poor, is the third duty of (wealthy or middle class) Muslims. A man working in industry or business of some sort is expected to give 2.5% of his yearly savings in charity, while a farmer is expected to”

Sawm: “Fourth is Sawm, or fasting. This is most visible during the holy month of Ramadan, when observant Muslims do not eat, drink, smoke, or engage in sexual activity at all during daylight hours. People are not required to fast if they are ill, nursing or pregnant, very young, etc”

Hajj: “The final pillar is making the Hajj – the pilgrimage to Mecca. Anyone who has the money and the health to travel to Mecca is encouraged to do so at least once during his or her lifetime.”

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jihad

literally struggle, one of the ideas of Muslim struggle to Mecca

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tawhid

literally to accept the oneness of God, one of the ideas of the Muslim struggle to Mecca

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caliph

a successor to or representative of the Prophet

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imam

literally spiritual leader,

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dhimmis

monotheistic of different faiths

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Hadith

important tools to help understand the Quran and other documents such as the Miraj

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Sunni

a group of Muslims that believed that the umma leadership shoulb be political and military

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Shi'a

a group of Muslims that supported Ali and had many opponents and enemies because of their belief towards the leadership pf the umma

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Ulama

the people that held spiritual authority in the beliefs of Sunni Muslims