WH2 Vocab. Unit 2 (Renaissance) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in WH2 Vocab. Unit 2 (Renaissance) Deck (45):
1

ideas

historical categories that express a culture's own sense of itself and it position in history. They often have little to do with the real historical experience of the period they pretend to explain

2

City-States

individual regions ruled centrally from a single city

3

Reconquista

a period of about 700 years in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in retaking the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim rule.

4

Firneze (Florence)

"the center of gravity during the Renaissance", the center of the Medici family, [add more]

5

Ponte Vecchio

a patron supported bridge that spans the Arno River and served as a central marketplace

6

Duomo

a patron (Medici) supported church (by Brunelleschi). It is the largest church in Florence and one of the great symbols of Roman Architecture.

7

Palaza del Signori or Palazzo Vecchio

Old Palace. a patron supported building celebrated for its defensive posture and beauty.

8

Santa Croce

a patron supported convent known for creating a warmer experience for Church-goers

9

Santa Maria Novella

a patron supported convent known for creating a warmer experience for Church-goers

10

Piazza

large square (open area or plaza)

11

Aristocracy

highest class. They held control of florence w/wealth, political councils, trade routes, influence... Some did mot work for their money but through inheritance and the passage of land (feudal land=power). Others got power through market economy

12

Social Mobility

a system where men could work their way into the aristocracy though industry, intelligence, and drive.

also through marriages, partnerships, friendships, alliances

13

guilds

trade union. They maintained considerable economic, political, and social power. Each guild controlled all of the workers in a specific field, monopoly

14

Major Guild

Merchant class of the Aristocracy. considerable wealth/influence.

judges/notaries, importers of foreign cloth, wool manufacturers, silk merchants, bankers, FURriers, and doctors and pharmacists

15

Minor Guilds

artisan and skill workers. Middle class. less influence than major guilds.

16

Miserabili

lowest order of society; unskilled workers. not enough little/no skill jobs for all of Miserabili, resorted to begging or crime.

17

republic

a government run by a small body of people on top. Florence spent most of its time as a republic. more open and inclusive the signory

18

signory

a government run by one leader. less open and inclusive than a republic

19

House of Medici

powerful clan who took control of Italy though banking trade. Gained entry though votes, ousted competitors, converted to signory

[Add More]

20

Nicolo Machiavelli

a premier political philosopher of the Renaissance. Secular thinker. Exiled by Medici family and in exile, wrote "the Prince"

21

The Prince

Nicolo Machiavelli's most famous worker. "a veritable how-to for men seeking political power and control. Examined how to build a successful republic or by what means a person might learn of the governments in ancient Greece and Rome

22

wool industry

employed one-third of Florence's residents during 14th and 15th centuries. Held ultimate power and wealth.

Top to bottom: merchants and manufacturers who sold the wool, minor guilds who dyed the wool, miserabilli who washed them.

100 million dollars+ a year

23

banking industry

another industry as well as force by which economical and political power was gained

24

Letter of Credit

allowed people to buy something with promise of payment later. Florentines did not need to travel with large bags of cash or possess the means to pay at the moment; mostly on reputation

25

Bill of Exchange

a letter of credit based on the exchange of currencies. Measured currencies against each other.

Some would switch to a currency wait for a rise in value and switch back to original currency

26

Endorsement

...of bills of exchange was the process where one would switch to a currency wait for a rise in value and switch back to original currency. Similar to endorsing a check.

27

Insurance Policies

for cargoes of merchandise; venders or owners would pay the banks fees in case of some destruction to their property

28

Holding Companies

where each branch of an organization opened under a new partnership between "partner/manager" and "central owner"; added capital and safeguards. Small impact on central owner and manager if went bankrupt with no affect on other branches or central bank.

29

gold florin

Florence's single unit of currency in the middle of the 13th century. First European city to move to a single init of currency. Merchants of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East preferred this sound, stable, and fairly universal unit of currency.

30

Humanism

the philosophy that took hold of literature, education, science, and art during the Early Renaissance.

1) Roman and Greek thinkers should be upheld and studied for their writings; antiquity and paganism
2) man as an individual should be celebrated for his abilities and greatness

[Add More]

31

Antiquity

the ancient past; especially the MIddle Ages. A big theme of Humanism is appreciating texts of the antiquity

32

ad-fontes

"to the source", focusing on the ancient world (Middle Ages).

33

Studia Humanitatis

new system of education. New curriculum included a well-rounded education that included anything related to humanities

34

Gioto

first examples of Renaissance painters. His art showcases some remnants of Medieval thinking while displaying modern concepts of perspective and subject. Created art for the Pope. Made great freehand circles.

35

Masaccio

first examples of Renaissance painters. His art showcases some remnants of Medieval thinking while displaying modern concepts of perspective and subject.

36

Botticelli

went further in art than Gioto and Masaccio depicting more non-religious art (greek, roman myth), real-life settings, or just celebrating the importance of people through portraiture.

37

Donatello

went further in art than Gioto and Masaccio depicting more non-religious art (greek, roman myth), real-life settings, or just celebrating the importance of people through portraiture.

38

Da Vinci

went further in art than Gioto and Masaccio depicting more non-religious art (greek, roman myth), real-life settings, or just celebrating the importance of people through portraiture.

39

Michelangelo's David

principle example of transition in sculpture. Perfection of human form (nude), defined muscles, detailed expressions, shadow and depth

40

Brunelleschi

the creator of the Duomo in Florence. Arguably the most famous architect to emerge from the Renaissance

41

Patrons

merchants and bankers who sought to further their mark on florence by giving back to the community through the production of great art. Funded artists since "support is most useful when it comes in the form of money"

42

christendom

the worldwide body or society of Christians. Christendom became especially larger during the High Middle Ages.

43

Knights

a man who served his sovereign or lord as a mounted soldier in armor. Lesser nobles who fight and do not own land. Given land by nobles in exchange for fighting services; also a “vassal”

44

Peasants/Serfs

an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate. Peasant who is tied to land Owned not by a person but by the land itself; work the manor lands for a lord

45

Artisans

a worker in a skilled trade. Primarily composed the minor guilds