Flashcards in What are the Motor Speech Disorders? Deck (37):
Selecting/organizing motor programs for correctly executing speech motor movement
Motor planning/ "motor programming"
Articulation of motor neurons providing neural outputs to muscles of articulators (involves speech subsystems)
What is a motor speech disorder?
A (nonsymbolic) neurogenic communication disorder
symbolic impairments : ______ :: non-symbolic impairments : non-linguistic
An impairment of speech production caused by defects of the neuromuscular system, the motor control system or both
Definition of MSD
What underlying systems may have defects in an MSD?
planning, programming, & executing speech
processes that define and sequence articulatory goals (before initiation of movement)
motor-planning : structure specific :: motor-programming : ________
processes that establish and prepare the flow of motor info across muscles, as well as control timing and force movement (before initiation of movement)
processes that activate relevant muscles (during and after initiation of movement)
What are the 2 broad categories of motor speech disorders? (for adults)
Apraxia of Speech (AOS) and Dysarthria(DAS)
A neurologic speech disorder that reflects an impaired capacity to plan or program sensorimotor commands for the positioning and movement of muscles for the volitional production of speech
Apraxia of Speech
AOS can occur without significant ________ or ______, and in the absence of disturbances of concious thought or language.
muscular weakness or slowness
A collective name for a group of neurologic speech disorders resulting from disturbances in muscular control.
impaired capacity to plan/program sensorimotor commands : ______ :: disturbances in muscular control : ______
Apraxia of Speech
Dysarthria can be either acquired or developmental/congenital. T or F?
How can dysarthria be acquired?
Damage to a previously intact nervous system
(e.g., strokes, degenerative disease, brain tumor, or TBI)
How can dysarthria be congenital?
it can result from abnormal development of the nervous system
(e.g., cerbebral palsy)
A disorder that affects salient movement characteristics such as speech and physical movements
How can dysarthrias be sub-categorized?
by patterns of deviant speech characteristics
Types of Dysarthria
Unilateral Upper Motor Neuron
Lesion Locus: LMN
Lesion Locus: UMN
Lesion Locus: Cerebellum
Lesion Locus: Basal Ganglia Control Circuit
Deficit: rigidity, reduced range of movement
Lesion Locus: Basal Ganglia control circuit
Deficit: involuntary movements
Unilateral upper motor neuron
Lesion Locus: UMN (unilateral)
Deficit: Weakness, incoordination, spasticity
Lesion Locus: 2 or more from others
Deficit: 2 or more from others
MSDs are not...
-Other neurologic speech disorders
-Non-neurologica/non-psychogenic voice disorders
-Psychogenic and related non-organic speech disorders
MSDs account for _____ of communication disorders (according to Mayo clinic)
How are MSDs identified?
Comp. motor speech eval
What are the 2 methods of observation/measurements?
Perceptual and Instrumental methods
Physiologic (aero dynamic and kinematic)
Auditory perceptual analysis of 30 sec speech samply of oral reading or conversational speech ; 38 speech characteristics rated on 7 pt scale
analysis of the acoustic energy of a speech sample
study of airflow and pressure generated during speech (including nasal pressure)
*vital capacity and subglottal pressure