What are the Motor Speech Disorders? Flashcards Preview

CD 660: Test 1 > What are the Motor Speech Disorders? > Flashcards

Flashcards in What are the Motor Speech Disorders? Deck (37):
1

Selecting/organizing motor programs for correctly executing speech motor movement

Motor planning/ "motor programming"

2

Articulation of motor neurons providing neural outputs to muscles of articulators (involves speech subsystems)

Execution

3

What is a motor speech disorder?

A (nonsymbolic) neurogenic communication disorder

4

symbolic impairments : ______ :: non-symbolic impairments : non-linguistic

linguistic

5

An impairment of speech production caused by defects of the neuromuscular system, the motor control system or both

Definition of MSD

6

What underlying systems may have defects in an MSD?

planning, programming, & executing speech

7

processes that define and sequence articulatory goals (before initiation of movement)

Motor planning

8

motor-planning : structure specific :: motor-programming : ________

muscle-specific

9

processes that establish and prepare the flow of motor info across muscles, as well as control timing and force movement (before initiation of movement)

motor programming

10

processes that activate relevant muscles (during and after initiation of movement)

motor execution

11

What are the 2 broad categories of motor speech disorders? (for adults)

Apraxia of Speech (AOS) and Dysarthria(DAS)

12

A neurologic speech disorder that reflects an impaired capacity to plan or program sensorimotor commands for the positioning and movement of muscles for the volitional production of speech

Apraxia of Speech

13

AOS can occur without significant ________ or ______, and in the absence of disturbances of concious thought or language.

muscular weakness or slowness

14

A collective name for a group of neurologic speech disorders resulting from disturbances in muscular control.

Dysarthria

15

impaired capacity to plan/program sensorimotor commands : ______ :: disturbances in muscular control : ______

Apraxia of Speech
Dysarthria

16

Dysarthria can be either acquired or developmental/congenital. T or F?

True

17

How can dysarthria be acquired?

Damage to a previously intact nervous system

(e.g., strokes, degenerative disease, brain tumor, or TBI)

18

How can dysarthria be congenital?

it can result from abnormal development of the nervous system

(e.g., cerbebral palsy)

19

A disorder that affects salient movement characteristics such as speech and physical movements

Dysarthria

20

How can dysarthrias be sub-categorized?

by patterns of deviant speech characteristics

21

Types of Dysarthria

Flaccid
Spastic
Hypokinetic
Hyperkinetic
Ataxic
Mixed
Unilateral Upper Motor Neuron

22

Flaccid

Lesion Locus: LMN
Deficit: Weakness

23

Spastic:

Lesion Locus: UMN
Deficit: Spasticity

24

Ataxic

Lesion Locus: Cerebellum
Deficit: Incoordination

25

Hypokinetic

Lesion Locus: Basal Ganglia Control Circuit
Deficit: rigidity, reduced range of movement

26

Hyperkinetic

Lesion Locus: Basal Ganglia control circuit
Deficit: involuntary movements

27

Unilateral upper motor neuron

Lesion Locus: UMN (unilateral)
Deficit: Weakness, incoordination, spasticity

28

Mixed

Lesion Locus: 2 or more from others
Deficit: 2 or more from others

29

MSDs are not...

-Cognitive-linguistic impairments
-Other neurologic speech disorders
-Sensory deficits
-Musculoskeletal defects
-Non-neurologica/non-psychogenic voice disorders
-Psychogenic and related non-organic speech disorders

30

MSDs account for _____ of communication disorders (according to Mayo clinic)

60%

31

How are MSDs identified?

Medical referral
Screening
Comp. motor speech eval
Diagnosis/Differential Diagnosis

32

What are the 2 methods of observation/measurements?

Perceptual and Instrumental methods

33

Instrumental Methods

Acoustic

Physiologic (aero dynamic and kinematic)

34

DAB approach

Auditory perceptual analysis of 30 sec speech samply of oral reading or conversational speech ; 38 speech characteristics rated on 7 pt scale

35

Acoustics

analysis of the acoustic energy of a speech sample

36

Aerodynamics

study of airflow and pressure generated during speech (including nasal pressure)

*vital capacity and subglottal pressure

37

Kinematics

Analysis of the movements of the muscle activation patterns