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CD 660: Test 1 > Neural System of Motor Speech > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neural System of Motor Speech Deck (109):
1

The nervous system is divided into the ___ and ___.

CNS
PNS

2

The CNS includes the ____ and ______.

Brain
Spinal Cord

3

The PNS includes parts of the nervous system that go ____ the brain and spinal cord. Also includes the _____ system and _____ system.

outside
Somatic System (cranial nerves/spinal nerves)
Automatic System

4

The most important cells of the nervous system.

Neurons

5

Means by which neural impulses are transmitted from one part of the nervous system to another.

Neurons

6

What are the 3 primary components of the neuron?

Cell body
Axon
Dendrites

7

Small substances released at end points (synaptic cleft) once charge reashes axon terminal

Neurotransmitters

8

What are 2 types of neurotransmitters?

Excitatory
Inhibitory

9

What are 2 important neurotransmitters in the motor system?

Acetylcholine (Ach)
Dopamine

10

______: junction between 2 neurons :: ______: junction between a neuron and a cell in the muscle

Synapse

Neuromuscular Junction

11

______: can be excitatory and inhibitory :: _____: is only excitatory and always uses ACH

Synapse

Neuromuscular Junction

12

Nuclei (Gray matter) makes up what 3 structures?

Cerebral Cortex
Subcortical Structures
Nuclei at brainstem

13

Types of Neurons

Motor Neurons (upper and lower)
Sensory Neurons
Interneurons

14

Bundles of axons : ____

fasciculi or tracts

15

Transmit impulses to other neurons/areas

tracts in CSN

16

transmit impulses from nerves to end organs

Nerves in PNS

17

The frontal lobe is in charge of ...

the motor cortex, Broca's area, executive functions, and personality

18

The temporal lobes are in charge of ...

auditory cortex, Wernicke's area and lang comp

19

Parietal Lobes are in charge of ...

Sensory cortex

20

The occipital lobe is in charge of ...

visual cortex

21

Cortices that first analyze sensory info

Primary Cortex : auditory, visual and sensory

22

cortex that receives planned motor impulses from cortical and subcortical areas of the brain

Primary motor cortex

23

Where does planning for voluntary movement originate in?

The association cortex

24

What occurs in the association cortices?

Different modalities are combined
attention is shifted
planning occurs
things are remembered

25

Where do the association cortices send rough sequence of motor impulses?

down to the subcortical structures for further processing and refining

26

-found in precentral gyrus
-somatotopically organized
-source for descending motor pathways

Primary Motor Cortex

27

Why is the primary motor cortex different from other primary cortices?

It is an actual commander; it receives neural motor impulses that have been processed, smoothed and coordinated

28

-postcentral gyrus
-primary receptor of general body sensations
-somatotopically arranged

Primary somatosensory cortex

29

primary motor cortex + primary sensory cortex = ?

sensorimotor area

30

What are the subcortical structures?

Basal Ganglia
Substantia Nigra
Subthalamic Nucleus
Diecephalon: Thalamus and Hypothalumus

31

What does the basal ganglia consist of?

The caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus

32

What important role does the basal ganglia play?

Plans and refines slow, continuous movements.

33

Fuction of BG

has a dampening effect on cortical discharges and helps initiate movements

34

Damage to BG tends to result in ...

excess involuntary movement or reduced movement

35

What structures influence the BG?

subcortical gray matter such as the substantia nigra and thalamus

36

If not enough dopamine is produced : it affects ________ :: if too much dopamine is produced : we _______

it affects gait and muscles become rigid; does not allow for smooth movements

we cannot control our movements

37

The thalamus is ...

a doorway through which subcortical systems of nervous system communicate with cerebral cortex

38

Fuction of Thalamus

"a relay center"
receives neural inputs of planned motor movements from BG and cerebellum

may further refine motor impulses

39

The cerebellum receives neural impulses of intended movements from ....

the association cortices

40

How does the cerebellum communicate with the rest of the CNS?

through 3 bundles of neural tracts called cerebellar peduncles

41

What are the 3 peduncles of the cerebellum called?

Inferior peduncles (receives sensory info, monitors timing & force of movement)

Middle peduncles (receive & coordinates preliminary info from cortex regarding planned movements)

Superior peduncles( main output channel to CNS)

42

What is the most important function of the cerebellum?

Coordination of rapid alternating movements, body balance during movement and motor programming (timing) & maintenance of muscle tone.

43

The cerebellum is _______ innervation.

double crossing

(this means symptoms are ipsilateral)

44

What is the brainstem divided into?

-midbrain
-pons
-medulla

45

What originates in the brainstem?

the cranial nerves

46

Why is the brainstem important?

acts as a passageway for descending and ascending neural tracts;
controls respiration and consciousness;
conveys motor impulses from CNS to muscles of larynx, face, tongue, pharynx and velum

47

There are ___ sensory only CNs, ___ motor only CNs and ___ mixed CNs.

3
5
4

48

How many CNs are important for speech and swallowing?

5 to 6 CNs

49

The innervation of CNs to muscles is _______.

ipsilateral

50

CN V (Trigeminal)

jaw open and close

51

CN VII (Facial)

muscles of lips, cheeks, facial expressions

52

CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)

elevates pharynx, gag reflex

53

CN X (Vagus)

larynx pharynx, soft palate muscles; recurrent laryngeal branch and superior laryngeal branch

54

CN XI (Accessory)

motor to pharynx, larynx, soft palate and neck; supports CN X

55

CN XII (hypoglossal)

muscles of the tongue

56

What CNs are most relevant to speech functions?

CNs V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII

57

Most CNs recieve innervation bilaterally from cerebral cortex, except CN ___ and CN ___.

VII; XII

58

Why do spinal nerves play an important role in speech production?

Spinal nerves are important for breathing functions in relation to swallowing and phonating

59

What levels of the nervous system does the speech motor system involve?

CNS, PNS, control circuites and descending motor pathways

60

Motor planning =

structure specific

61

Motor programming =

muscle specific

62

Motor execution =

primary motor cortex

63

Upper motor neurons originate in the ______ and terminate on _____.

cortex; LMN

64

T or F? All UMNs cross over to the opposite side before synapsing on LMNs.

True

65

Where do LMNs originate; terminate?

originate= in spinal cord or lower level of brainstem in PNS
terminate = on muscles they innervate

66

LMN system =

final common pathway

67

UMNs cross over at ?

Pons or medulla level

68

T or F?
UMN: Neuron cell bodies are not found within the CNS.

False;
all neuron cell bodies are in CNS.

69

UMN system tracts are termed ______ and ______.

direct and indirect activation pathways.

70

certain muscles are continuously contracted; leads to weak/slow movements and reduced range of motion

Muscle spasticity

71

abnormally increased muscle tone

hypertonia

72

exaggerated muscle's stretch reflex; indication of UMN disease

hyperreflexia

73

muscular spasm involving repeated, often rythmic contractions

clonus

74

signs of UMN damage includes...

muscle spasticity, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, and clonus

75

LMN system: neuron cell bodies are found where?

in cranial/spinal nerves (PNS)

76

reduced muscle tone; results in paralysis/paresis/weakness

hypotonia

77

loss of muscle bulk due to lack of innervation (only seen MSD associated with LMN)

atrophy

78

involuntary muscle contractions (visible to eye)

fasciculations

79

involuntary contraction of individual muscles (not visible)

fibrilliations

80

signs of LMN damage includes...

hypotonia, atrophy, fasiculations, and fibrilliations

81

direct activation pathway AKA pyramidal system

system for voluntary motor control for face and body

82

indirect activation pathway AKA extrapyramidal system

mostly involuntary/automatic control

83

Function of Pyramidal system

pathways are faciltory for skilled, discrete movements; very important for speech

84

corticobulbar tract : supplies musculature of ______ :: cortispinal tract : supplies musculature of _____.

head/face and neck

limbs

85

Corticobulbar tract: comprised, originates, crosses, & synapses?

comprised: of UMN
originates: in primary motor cortex
crosses: to opposite side of brain at brainstem
synapse: on cranial nerve nuclei at various levels of brainstem

86

Corticobulbar projection to most cranial nerve nuclei is bilateral, but is contralateral to CN ____ and ____.

CN VII and CN XII.

87

Function of Extrapyramidal System

helps regulate reflexes and maintain posture, tone and associated activities that provide framework for skilled movements; many inhibitory movements

88

Speech Motor System

higher cognitive center (intent) --> association areas (motor plans) --> association areas + control circuits (programming)
--> primary motor cortex

89

Corticospinal tracts: _____ UMN input to spinal nerve.

contralateral

90

corticobulbra tracts: _____ UMN input to most crabial nerves (except CNs VII and XII)

bilateral

91

LMN system = _____ innervation

ipsilateral

92

Which cranial nerve has 3 branches?

CN V

93

Unilateral LMN damage to CN V symptoms

-jaw deviates to weak side when opened
-mildly reduced strength of masticator muscles on same side as lesion
-no major effects on speech

94

Bilateral LMN damage to CN V symptoms

-jaw hangs open & cant be closed; slow or limited range
-reduced strength of masticator muscles on both sides
-artic affected in major way

95

Unilateral UMN damage to CN V sympotoms

No real affect on speech; other side will accommodate

96

Bilateral UMN damage to CN V symptoms

-limited jaw movement
-mandible hangs low; exaggerated jaw jerk
-artic affected in major way

97

CN VII innervates ____ of the face bilaterally and _____ of the face contralaterally.

upper 1/3

lower 2/3

98

Unilateral LMN damage to CN VII

-entire side of face ipsilateral to lesion droops
-no wrinkles, difficult to close eye, corner of mouth droops, flattened nasolabial fold
-atrophy of muscles on side of face ipsilateral lesion
-speech is not negatively affected to great extent

99

Bilateral LMN damage to CN VII

-paralysis on upper and lower facial muscles on both sides of face
-(may) preserve emotional expression (laugh)
-hearing is affected bilaterally
-major difficulty producing labial and labiodental sounds

100

Unilateral UMN damage to CN VII

-lower 2/3 of face on contralateral side of lesion will be affected
-flatted nasolabial fold
-corner of mouth drops
-little effect on speech

101

Bilateral UMN damage to CN VII

-both sides of face affected
-(may) preserve emotional expression (laugh)
-hearing is affected bilaterally
-major difficulty producing labial and labiodental sounds

102

Unilateral LMN damage to CN X

-palate droops on ipsilateral side to lesion
-mild hypernasality
-VF paralyzed on same side as lesion
-breathy
-dipholphonia
-weak pharynx on same side as lesion
-swallowing difficulty

103

Bilateral LMN damange to CN X

-serious life risks b/c airway compromised
-palate droops bilaterally
-severe hypernasality
-bilateral VF paralysis
-severe breathiness
-inhilation stridor
-severe swallowing difficulty

104

Unilateral UMN damage to CN X

-minimal to no effect on phonation, resonance or swallowing
-harsh voice quality

105

Bilateral UMN damage to CN X

-paresis of VFs
-spasticity of VFs
-strained-strangled phonation
-hypernasality
-swallowing difficulty

106

Unilateral LMN damage to CN XII

-atrophy, weakness and fasciculations of the tongue on same side as lesion
-tongue deviates to side of lesion (weak side) on protrusion
-mild imprecise artic
-may have difficulty moving food around mouth

107

Bilateral LMN damage to CN XII

-bilateral atrophy, weakness and fasciculations of tongue
-tongue protrusion may be limited/nonexistant
-no tongue deviation
-mild-severe imprecise artic
-severe difficulty swallowing and eating

108

Unilateral UMN damage to CN XII

-some weakness of tongue on opposite side of lesion
-tongue deviates to side opposite of lesion on protrusion
-mild imprecise artic

109

bilateral UMN damage to CN XII

-bilateral tongue weakness
-no tongue deviation
-tongue protrusion may be limited/nonexistant
-mild-severe artic imprecisio n
-severe difficulty in swallowing and eating