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Flashcards in World Cities Deck (21):

What is a world city?

An interconnected global economic centre that has a significant influence on the world economy

Eg London and Sydney

They are important on a global scale and account for 30% of the world’s economy so are significant beyond the country which they are situated in

Almost all in MEDCs/HICs but some eg Dharavi are in emerging economies


What is happening to the number of world cities?


1950- only world cities were London, Paris, Tokyo and New York

More recently economic growth in oil rich countries such as Nigeria has allowed cities such as Lagos to become contenders for world city status

They cities are increasingly important in global economies and business


Name two world cities that have emerged as leaders of banking and finance and explain them

London and Newyork

Many banking companies such as HSBC, Lloyds and RSB have headquarters in these cities


Generic characteristics of world cities

Usually dominate international trade and regional economies in their area—

World cities have good transport links which allow them to trade w the rest of the world

Usually have world renowned universities

Centres for science and innovation w high quality research and development facilities

Centres for culture- home to media and communication corporations as well as range of theatre, museums and other cultural attractions

Tend to attract high numbers of people from other countries inc migrants, business visitors, students and tourists


Give an example of how world cities usually dominate international trade and regional economies in their area

Tokyo is extremely influential in international trade between the East Asian nations


Classification of world cities

Alpha ++
Alpha +
Alpha -




Alpha ++ city

New York



Alpha +

Hong Kong







Alpha -

Los Angeles

Mexico City


Beta cities


SAN Fransisco


Gamma cities


Panama City


4 Hubs of world cities

Hubs of business transport and trade

Production hubs

Political hubs

Migration hubs


Explain hubs of business transport and trade

World cities have strong connections to the rest of the world eg by internet electronic communication and air

Clear identifiers of personal wealth - eg numbers of billionaires


Example of city which is a hub of business transport and trade

London’s Heathrow airport- world’s largest international passenger traffic

Singapore- major centres for shipping and container traffic

Tokyo- dominates global trade and consumer activity.
They contain corporate head quarters for TNCs, international financial institutions, law firms, industrial grants (eg BP) and stock exchanges that influence the world economy
To support these, a significant number of financial services, such as banking and accountancy are also present


Explain Production hubs

Most manufacturing and production of goods are carried in developing countries + NICs,

many decisions about marketing and production across the world, are made by TNCs (transactional corporations)

most of whose headquarters are located in world cities.


Explain political hubs

These cities through their politicians often dictate trading and economic links between countries

They influence and participate in international events (eg GB summits) and world affairs


Examples of political hub

At city level, mayors of NY and London see it as their role to promote their cities globally and network with those companies and institutions they believe will use their city as a base

At a national level, individuals and organisations promote political and financial support for those parties which offer what they see as essential to growth


Explain Migration hubs

World cities are an influence as they attract qualified talented people who are generally mobile (can move e jobs to locations that offer a high quality of life)


Examples of migration hubs

Sydney and Melbourne in Australia regularly feature in the top 10 cities offering the highest quality of life

They have a diverse pop as a result from demographic flows as well as flows of finance, trade and ideas.

Encourage migration of world’s wealthiest people, stacking talent and offering opportunities for innovation and change


Give an example of a big scale of world cities

Dominate normal economies m

Paris- 25% of French GDP
London- 40% of UK GDP