Urbanisation Flashcards Preview

Geography- contemporary urban enviro > Urbanisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urbanisation Deck (18):

What is urbanisation

The growth in the proportion of people living in urban areas


What are the causes of urbanisation (6)

Migration (esp rural urban migration)

Natural increase (youthful pop)

A wider choice of employment

Easier access to school and healthcare

Rural May be over populated +/- desertification May have taken place

Improvement in farming


What are the consequences or urbanisation (5)

Traffic congestion

Air pollution

Low quality of life in shanty towns

Loss of culture

Waste management problems


What can be seen as both a cause and consequence of urbanisation (2)

Inadequate fresh water supply

Lack of accessible health and education services


Explain how rural over population and desertification is a cause of urbanisation

Birth rates are higher then death rates in rural areas because...

So too many mouthes to feed leads to over use of farm land which then loses its fertility due to the top soil being loose and flying away, and then becomes desert.

This is a push factor


Explain how improvement and changes in farm practices is a cause of urbanisation

There has been improvement and changes in farming practices

Eg intensive farming

This means there are more food supplies available in urban areas and so people move there

Especially if desertification has occurred where they previously lived in rural areas due to rural over population

This is a pull factor


Explain how Traffic congestion ‘all day rush hours’ is a consequence of urbanisation

Urbanisation- larger population in urban areas

Results in more people driving vehicles in urban areas

Can cause traffic congestion and all day rush hours

FACTORY owners who benefit from more workers can also then afford to get cars— adding to congestion and rush hours


Explain how a lack of accessible health and education services can be seen as both a cause and consequence of urbanisation

Urbanisation often takes place due to lack of accessible health and education services
Lack of skilled migrants leading and small pop —> inaccessible services as only a few

More people in urban- higher pop- all need access to service— can cause lack of accessibility due to a higher demand needed


What is a million city

A city with over a million inhabitants

There were 80 in 1959, but now there are 340

They can also be called millionaire cities


What is a world city

A city that acts as a major centre for finance, trade, business, politics, culture, science, publishing; all all associated activities-

serving not just a country of region known as ‘hubs of’


What is a mega city

Metropolitan area- total population in excess of 10 million

Density normally over 2000people/km squared

Can be made up of 2 or more metropolitan areas that converge upon one another

Less then 25% are in MEDCs


Explain the distribution of the world’s largest cities

80% below the Brandt line in LEDCs.

Apart from Newyork and Tokyo

Could be because of urbanisation- occurs more in LEDCs as the rural areas are less build up

An overpopulation city can cause less economic development to take place as higher demand for eg food and accommodation

Could be why most largest cities below Brandt line


Explain the distribution of the world’s fastest growing cities

10/10 below Brandt line


Due to crop failures, natural disasters, unemployment, lack of basic amenities, and bad health care

The urban areas could provide better paid jobs, reliable food supply, health and education services. All of these cause urbanisation to take place


What is the process of the urban growth model





Counter urbanisation




Urban resurgence



Less economically developed country



More economically developed country



High income country



Former communist country