Flashcards in WSET - Chapter 3 - Viniculture Deck (42)
Name the five things a vine needs to be healthy and ripen.
Carbon dioxide, water, heat, sunlight, nutrients
How is climate different than weather?
Climate describes the weather conditions we may expect in a year, while weather is what happens in a typical day
Name three elements that control the climate of a location
Latitude, altitude and oceans
How do ocean currents and breezes affect climate in wine growing regions?
In all cases, except the west coast of France, ocean breezes are cooling. However in Bordeaux the ocean breeze is warming.
What happens to a grape if the climate is not hot enough to tipen it?
It tastes sour, astringent, bitter and lacking in fruit flavors
What happens to a grape iff the climate is too hot?
They become unpleasantly jammy low acid, raisiny or generally taste bland
Wines grown in a hot climate are what with respect to alcohol, body, tannis and acidity?
High alcohol, full body, high tannins, less acidity
Wines grown in a cool climate are what with respect to alcohol, body, tannis and acidity?
Low alcohol, light body, less tannis, more acid
What time during the year does weather have the biggest impact on grapes?
The growing season
Name four types of extreme weather that impact grapes.
Hail (damages skin, subject to rot); extreme cold or hot; floods and late frosts
How do winemakers handle vintage variations?
They rely on blending to keep style similar.
Sunlight allows grapes to combine ____ and ____ into ______
Carbon dioxide, water, sugar
What chemical species is fermented into alcohol?
In high latitude regions (far away from the Equator) what do you do to vineyard to ensure there is enoug sunlight?
Plant on a slope or near a river that reflects sunlight
Too much water does what to grapes (like six things)
Bloated, high yields, less body, alochol and flavor. Generally diluted falvors. It can also lead to rot if there is dampness.
For the highest quality wine, how do you manage water?
Just enough water to ensure sugar production, but no more.
In Europe why are vines planted on steep slopes or soils like gravel or chalk?
They help water drain away and can contribute warmth (e.g. gravel)
Most of the worlds vineyards are found at what position in the globe?
In temperature zones between 30 and 50 degrees
What are the main factors affecting warmth of vines? What are secondary factors?
Climate and weather. In addition soils can reflect heat or retain it. Dry stony soils are warmer than wet clay.
Name three effects on climate
Latitude, altitude and ocean
What vineyard activities affect the quality and style of the grape?
Generally its management of the yield and care in the vineyard (e.g. watering, pruning, ....)
Name the four parts of a grape
Stalk, skin, pulp and sees
Give some examples of pests and diseases in a vineyard
Animals can eat grapes; fungus like mildew or rot damage the green parts of a vine; long-term fungal bacteria or viral diseases can affect the health of vines lowering yields and inhibiting ripening.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of machine harvesting
It is efficient and cheap; it can only be done on flat sites. It yields exclusively whole bunch grapes.
What is the most important part of the winemaking process?
Describe the five stages in making white wine, indicating when skins are removed.
Crushing, pressing (remove skins), fermentation, maturation and bottling.
What is must?
The mix of grape juice and yeast that you have prior to fermentation.
What is the temperature of white wine fermentation?
Low temperatures, 12-22 C
How long does fermentation of white wine take?
Two to four weeks