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Flashcards in 01: Organization Deck (70):
1

Head and neck muscles derived from (X), not somites, are (voluntary/involuntary) and (smooth/striated). What type of fibers innervate them?

X = pharyngeal
Voluntary; striated

Special visceral efferent

2

What are the key differences between muscles innervated by general somatic efferent fibers and those innervated by special visceral efferent fibers?

ONLY developmental origin (otherwise, functionally/histologically similar)

3

Skin of head and neck innervated by which nerve type?

General somatic afferent

4

Parasympathetic innervation to head/neck travels via (X). Sympathetic innervation travels via (Y).

X = cranial nerves
Y = sympathetic trunk

5

(Like/unlike) in the thorax, respiratory and alimentary tracts in head/neck region are (involuntarily/voluntarily) controlled.

Unlike; Voluntarily

6

List the "special senses", called so because (X).

X = they're unique to the head

Taste, sight, smell, balance, hearing

7

In general sense, arterial blood supply of head/neck is derived from (X) off of (Y).

X = common carotids (Y = aorta) AND
X = vertebral arteries (Y = subclavian)

8

(X) arteries off subclavian travel up to head/neck by passing through (Y) in (thoracic/cervical) vertebrae.

X = vertebral
Y = transverse foramina
Cervical

9

The brain itself receives blood from which main arterial systems?

Internal carotid and vertebral

10

The (X) artery off aorta ascend through neck within (Y) sleeve called (Z). What else travels with it?

X = carotid
Y = fascial
Z = carotid sheath

IJV, vagus nerve, lymphatics

11

Carotid sheath extends from (X) to (Y).

X = thoracic inlet
Y = base of skull

12

Carotid artery divides into (X) at which landmark?

X = internal and external carotids

At level of larynx

13

The carotid (body/sinus) is formed by dilation of (X). What's the function?

Sinus
X = carotid bifurcation

Walls contain visceral baroreceptors, sensitive to arterial BP

14

The carotid (body/sinus) is located near (X). It contains (Y) and functions to:

X = carotid bifurcation (and carotid sinus)
Y = chemoreceptors
Monitors blood pO2, pCO2, and pH

15

List branches off external carotid artery. Star the terminal branch(es).

1. Superior thyroid
2. Ascending pharyngeal
3. Lingual
4. Facial
5. Occipital
6. Posterior auricular
7. Superficial temporal*
8. Maxillary *

16

List the parts of the maxillary artery

1. Mandibular
2. Pterygoid
3. Pterygopalatine

17

(External/internal) carotid artery travels through canal in base of skull and emerges into (X).

Internal;
X = middle cranial fossa

18

First, (X), part of internal carotid artery extends from (Y) to (Z).

X = cervical
Y = carotid bifurcation
Z = base of skull

19

Second, (X), part of internal carotid artery travels in which direction and in which space?

X = petrous
Anteromedially; in carotid canal

20

The (X) part of internal carotid artery takes a sharply curved course, eventually piercing (Y) and entering (Z).

X = third/cavernous
Y = roof of cavernous dural venous sinus
Z = subdural space

21

Fourth, (X), part of internal carotid artery extends from (Y) to (Z).

X = cerebral
Y = roof of cavernous sinus
Z = terminal bifurcation of artery

22

Internal carotid artery terminal branches.

1. Anterior and middle cerebral arteries
2. Posterior communicating branch
3. Opthalmic artery

23

Anterior cerebral artery (generally) supplies which area(s)?

Medial cerebral hemispheres

24

Middle cerebral artery (generally) supplies which area(s)?

1. Temporal lobe
2. Anterolateral frontal lobe
3. Parietal lobe

25

Posterior communicating artery joins (X) branch off (Y) artery to form link in circle of Willis.

X = posterior cerebral
Y = basilar

26

(X), off of (Y) artery, is only arterial vessel physician can see directly.

X = Central artery of retina
Y = opthalmic

27

Since (X) is a true-end artery, its obstruction will cause instant and complete blindness (unilaterally/bilaterally).

X = Central artery of retina
Unilaterally (ipsilateral eye)

28

List branches off subclavian that supply muscles in posterior triangle of neck.

1. Transverse cervical
2. Dorsal scapular
3. Suprascapular

29

Thyroid gland supplied by which key arteries? What are the general origins?

1. Superior thyroid (external carotid)
2. Inferior thyroid (subclavian)

30

At the level of (X), vertebral artery pierces (Y) and enters cranial cavity through (Z).

X = C1
Y = spinal dura
Z = foramen magnum

31

T/F: Vertebral arteries supply nothing in external head/neck.

False

32

Basilar artery forms (above/below) C1.

Above

33

T/F: Veins of head/neck anastamose freely and have no functional valves.

False - one valve at base of IJV

34

T/F: There are superficial and deep venous drainage pathways in head/neck.

True

35

EJV is part of (superficial/deep) venous drainage and drains directly into:

Superficial;

IJV and Subclavian vein

36

(X) vein parallels distribution of vertebral artery. It descends through (Y) to enter the (Z) vein(s).

X = vertebral
Y = transverse foramina of C1-C6
Z = brachiocephalic

37

Venous blood returns to heart from head/neck via which veins?

1. IJV and EJV
2. Vertebral
3. Inferior thyroid

38

Inferior thyroid vein drains into:

Brachiocephalic vein

39

Describe the structure/texture of the cranial dura mater.

Thick sheet of tough CT

40

What are the formal names for the two surfaces of the dura? What does each face?

1. Periosteal (faces skull)
2. Meningeal (faces arachnoid)

41

T/F: Both surfaces of dura are rough.

False - meningeal is smooth

42

What's the endocranium?

Periosteal surface of dura; serves as periosteum for inner surface of skull

43

(X) is continuous with (Y) through sutures between individual skull bones.

X = endocranium
Y = epicranium

44

T/F: There is no typical epidural space in normal head anatomy.

True

45

Dural folds form due to:

Outer and inner dural layers follow different contours

46

List the sagittal dural fold(s).

1. Falx cerebri
2. Falx cerebelli

47

List the transverse dural fold(s).

Tentorium cerebelli

48

(X) demarcates transition between the different types of (transverse/sagittal) dural folds.

X = tentorium cerebelli (transverse dural fold)

Sagittal

49

Dural venous sinuses arise as a result of:

separation between outer and inner dural layers (forming space in-between)

50

Which sinuses drain directly into IJV?

1. Sigmoid sinuses
2. Inferior petrosal sinus

51

(X) sinuses occupy critical location and have many anatomical relationships. It contains which cranial nerves?

X = cavernous

3, 4, 5 (V1 and V2), and 6

52

CN modalities involved in voluntary motor in head/neck.

GSE and SVE

53

CN modalities involved in involuntary motor in head/neck.

GVE

54

CN modalities involved in conscious perception in head/neck.

GSA and SA

55

CN modalities involved in subconscious perception in head/neck.

GVA

56

Sensory innervation from carotid body/sinus travels in (X) nerve, with which nerve modality?

X = CN IX (glossopharyngeal)

GVA

57

Dural venous sinuses are involved in flow of:

Venous blood and CSF

58

In epidural hematoma, (artery/vein) between (X) and (Y) bleeds and forms characteristic (Z)-shaped defect.

Artery;

X = skull
Y = dura
Z = lens-shaped

59

In (X) hematoma, the layers are pulled apart slowly. Why?

X = epidural

Dura tightly adhered to skull

60

In subdural hematoma, (artery/vein) between (X) and (Y) bleeds and causes characteristic shift in (Z).

Vein;
X = dura
Y = arachnoid
Z = brain

61

In (X) hematoma, the ventricles may appear compressed.

X = subdural

62

Subdural hematomas typically result from (X) injuries.

X = acceleration/deceleration

63

Epidural hematomas typically result from (X) injuries.

X = blunt hit (usually temporal region)

64

In subarachnoid hemorrhage, blood flows between (X) and (Y) membranes and typically follows (Z) layer.

X = pial
Y = arachnoid
Z = pia

65

IJV terminates superior to (X) joint by joining (Y) to form (Z).

X = sternoclavicular
Y = subclavian vein
Z = brachiocephalic vein

66

Main landmark for identifying/accessing IJV.

SCM (overlying it)

67

The deep lymph node chains in neck lie along (X) vessel.

X = IJV

68

T/F: All lymph from head and neck eventually drains through deep lymph nodes.

True

69

T/F: Both superficial and deep lymph nodes in neck are deep to SCM.

False - superficial are not

70

(X) group of lymph nodes in neck are readily/commonly palpated if swollen.

X = Jugulo-digastric