Flashcards in 01: Organization Deck (70):
Head and neck muscles derived from (X), not somites, are (voluntary/involuntary) and (smooth/striated). What type of fibers innervate them?
X = pharyngeal
Special visceral efferent
What are the key differences between muscles innervated by general somatic efferent fibers and those innervated by special visceral efferent fibers?
ONLY developmental origin (otherwise, functionally/histologically similar)
Skin of head and neck innervated by which nerve type?
General somatic afferent
Parasympathetic innervation to head/neck travels via (X). Sympathetic innervation travels via (Y).
X = cranial nerves
Y = sympathetic trunk
(Like/unlike) in the thorax, respiratory and alimentary tracts in head/neck region are (involuntarily/voluntarily) controlled.
List the "special senses", called so because (X).
X = they're unique to the head
Taste, sight, smell, balance, hearing
In general sense, arterial blood supply of head/neck is derived from (X) off of (Y).
X = common carotids (Y = aorta) AND
X = vertebral arteries (Y = subclavian)
(X) arteries off subclavian travel up to head/neck by passing through (Y) in (thoracic/cervical) vertebrae.
X = vertebral
Y = transverse foramina
The brain itself receives blood from which main arterial systems?
Internal carotid and vertebral
The (X) artery off aorta ascend through neck within (Y) sleeve called (Z). What else travels with it?
X = carotid
Y = fascial
Z = carotid sheath
IJV, vagus nerve, lymphatics
Carotid sheath extends from (X) to (Y).
X = thoracic inlet
Y = base of skull
Carotid artery divides into (X) at which landmark?
X = internal and external carotids
At level of larynx
The carotid (body/sinus) is formed by dilation of (X). What's the function?
X = carotid bifurcation
Walls contain visceral baroreceptors, sensitive to arterial BP
The carotid (body/sinus) is located near (X). It contains (Y) and functions to:
X = carotid bifurcation (and carotid sinus)
Y = chemoreceptors
Monitors blood pO2, pCO2, and pH
List branches off external carotid artery. Star the terminal branch(es).
1. Superior thyroid
2. Ascending pharyngeal
6. Posterior auricular
7. Superficial temporal*
8. Maxillary *
List the parts of the maxillary artery
(External/internal) carotid artery travels through canal in base of skull and emerges into (X).
X = middle cranial fossa
First, (X), part of internal carotid artery extends from (Y) to (Z).
X = cervical
Y = carotid bifurcation
Z = base of skull
Second, (X), part of internal carotid artery travels in which direction and in which space?
X = petrous
Anteromedially; in carotid canal
The (X) part of internal carotid artery takes a sharply curved course, eventually piercing (Y) and entering (Z).
X = third/cavernous
Y = roof of cavernous dural venous sinus
Z = subdural space
Fourth, (X), part of internal carotid artery extends from (Y) to (Z).
X = cerebral
Y = roof of cavernous sinus
Z = terminal bifurcation of artery
Internal carotid artery terminal branches.
1. Anterior and middle cerebral arteries
2. Posterior communicating branch
3. Opthalmic artery
Anterior cerebral artery (generally) supplies which area(s)?
Medial cerebral hemispheres
Middle cerebral artery (generally) supplies which area(s)?
1. Temporal lobe
2. Anterolateral frontal lobe
3. Parietal lobe
Posterior communicating artery joins (X) branch off (Y) artery to form link in circle of Willis.
X = posterior cerebral
Y = basilar
(X), off of (Y) artery, is only arterial vessel physician can see directly.
X = Central artery of retina
Y = opthalmic
Since (X) is a true-end artery, its obstruction will cause instant and complete blindness (unilaterally/bilaterally).
X = Central artery of retina
Unilaterally (ipsilateral eye)
List branches off subclavian that supply muscles in posterior triangle of neck.
1. Transverse cervical
2. Dorsal scapular
Thyroid gland supplied by which key arteries? What are the general origins?
1. Superior thyroid (external carotid)
2. Inferior thyroid (subclavian)
At the level of (X), vertebral artery pierces (Y) and enters cranial cavity through (Z).
X = C1
Y = spinal dura
Z = foramen magnum
T/F: Vertebral arteries supply nothing in external head/neck.
Basilar artery forms (above/below) C1.
T/F: Veins of head/neck anastamose freely and have no functional valves.
False - one valve at base of IJV
T/F: There are superficial and deep venous drainage pathways in head/neck.
EJV is part of (superficial/deep) venous drainage and drains directly into:
IJV and Subclavian vein
(X) vein parallels distribution of vertebral artery. It descends through (Y) to enter the (Z) vein(s).
X = vertebral
Y = transverse foramina of C1-C6
Z = brachiocephalic
Venous blood returns to heart from head/neck via which veins?
1. IJV and EJV
3. Inferior thyroid
Inferior thyroid vein drains into:
Describe the structure/texture of the cranial dura mater.
Thick sheet of tough CT
What are the formal names for the two surfaces of the dura? What does each face?
1. Periosteal (faces skull)
2. Meningeal (faces arachnoid)
T/F: Both surfaces of dura are rough.
False - meningeal is smooth
What's the endocranium?
Periosteal surface of dura; serves as periosteum for inner surface of skull
(X) is continuous with (Y) through sutures between individual skull bones.
X = endocranium
Y = epicranium
T/F: There is no typical epidural space in normal head anatomy.
Dural folds form due to:
Outer and inner dural layers follow different contours
List the sagittal dural fold(s).
1. Falx cerebri
2. Falx cerebelli
List the transverse dural fold(s).
(X) demarcates transition between the different types of (transverse/sagittal) dural folds.
X = tentorium cerebelli (transverse dural fold)
Dural venous sinuses arise as a result of:
separation between outer and inner dural layers (forming space in-between)
Which sinuses drain directly into IJV?
1. Sigmoid sinuses
2. Inferior petrosal sinus
(X) sinuses occupy critical location and have many anatomical relationships. It contains which cranial nerves?
X = cavernous
3, 4, 5 (V1 and V2), and 6
CN modalities involved in voluntary motor in head/neck.
GSE and SVE
CN modalities involved in involuntary motor in head/neck.
CN modalities involved in conscious perception in head/neck.
GSA and SA
CN modalities involved in subconscious perception in head/neck.
Sensory innervation from carotid body/sinus travels in (X) nerve, with which nerve modality?
X = CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
Dural venous sinuses are involved in flow of:
Venous blood and CSF
In epidural hematoma, (artery/vein) between (X) and (Y) bleeds and forms characteristic (Z)-shaped defect.
X = skull
Y = dura
Z = lens-shaped
In (X) hematoma, the layers are pulled apart slowly. Why?
X = epidural
Dura tightly adhered to skull
In subdural hematoma, (artery/vein) between (X) and (Y) bleeds and causes characteristic shift in (Z).
X = dura
Y = arachnoid
Z = brain
In (X) hematoma, the ventricles may appear compressed.
X = subdural
Subdural hematomas typically result from (X) injuries.
X = acceleration/deceleration
Epidural hematomas typically result from (X) injuries.
X = blunt hit (usually temporal region)
In subarachnoid hemorrhage, blood flows between (X) and (Y) membranes and typically follows (Z) layer.
X = pial
Y = arachnoid
Z = pia
IJV terminates superior to (X) joint by joining (Y) to form (Z).
X = sternoclavicular
Y = subclavian vein
Z = brachiocephalic vein
Main landmark for identifying/accessing IJV.
SCM (overlying it)
The deep lymph node chains in neck lie along (X) vessel.
X = IJV
T/F: All lymph from head and neck eventually drains through deep lymph nodes.
T/F: Both superficial and deep lymph nodes in neck are deep to SCM.
False - superficial are not