02c: CNS Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 02c: CNS Cells Deck (62):
1

CSF exists in (X) space, between which meningeal layers?

X = subarachnoid;

Arachnoid and pia

2

List the two potential spaces associated with meninges, where blood can collect during hemorrhage.

Epidural and subdural

3

Tearing of (X) vessel where it meets dural venous sinus likely results in subdural hemorrhage.

X = cerebral vein (where it meets dural venous sinus)

4

Tearing of (X) vessel likely results in epidural hemorrhage.

X = meningeal artery of skull

5

(Like/unlike) other regions of body, fluid in blood (can/cannot) have unrestricted access to brain.

Unlike; cannot

6

T/F: BBB exists in all regions of brain.

False - most, except for few small regions

7

T/F: There's only one mechanism by which substances are transported across BBB.

False - diverse mechanisms

8

Neuroglial cells are divided into which categories? They're divided based on (X).

X = size

Microglia and macroglia

9

Astrocytes are in which specific category of (X) cells?

X = neuroglial

Macroglia

10

Oligodendrocytes are in which specific category of (X) cells?

X = neuroglial

Macroglia

11

(Astrocytes/oligodendrocytes) have more compact nucleus.

Oligodendrocytes

12

Which cells responsible for immuno surveillance/patrol in brain?

Microglia

13

T/F: Brain does not have a lymphatic system.

True

14

Localized damage in brain will initially activate fast directional movement of (X) cells in attempt to do (Y).

X = microglia
Y = contain injury

15

(X) form myelin in CNS.

X = oligodendrocytes

16

Each process of (X) cell contacts and myelinates (Y) number of CNS axons.

X = oligodendrocyte
Y = one

17

Each (X) cell contacts and myelinates (Y) number of CNS axons.

X = oligodendrocyte
Y = multiple

18

T/F: Oligodendrocyte cell size depends on size of axon/amount of myelin.

True

19

T/F: Amount of myelin on axon depends on number of processes of oligodendrocyte.

False

20

T/F: There is notable loss of neurons with age.

False

21

T/F: Normal aging affects myelination/axons.

True

22

Star-shaped macroglia, aka (X), include which types?

X = astrocytes

Protoplasmic and fibrous

23

A (X) astrocyte is found near cell body, aka (grey/white) matter.

X = protoplasmic;
Grey

24

A (X) astrocyte is found near cell axon, aka (grey/white) matter.

X = fibrous;
white

25

Astroctye general functions:

1. Regulate ionic composition
2. Provide metabolic support
3. Recycle NT
4. GFAP (intermediate filaments) provide structural support
5. Insulation of synapses/nodes of ranvier

26

GFAP stands for (X).

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

27

Parts of neuron that aren't covered by synapses are covered by:

Astrocytes

28

(X) processes have end feet which cover (Y).

X = astrocytes
Y = blood vessels and brain/SC surface

29

End feet of (X) that form membrane around (Y) is formally called (Z).

X = astrocytes
Y = brain/SC
Z = glia limitans

30

Large populations of astrocytes are connected by:

Gap junctions

31

Neuron is damaged. How do astrocytes respond?

1. Strip synapses (isolate damaged neuron)
2. Physical barrier to regeneration
3. Proliferate and wall off area of injury (astrocytic scar)

32

Substance can pass into extracellular space by which mechanisms?

1. Paracellular (between cells)
2. Vesicular transport (through cells)
3. Fenestration (through pores in endothelium)

33

The BBB exists between which vessels/space?

Between capillaries and extracellular fluid

34

Which specific cells of which specific vessels form the BBB?

Endothelial cells of brain capillaries

35

T/F: BBB has few caveolae and few pores.

False - NO pores

36

T/F: The massive amount of gap junctions form the tight BBB seal.

False - massive amount of tight junctions

37

(X) surround capillaries and provide secondary protective mechanism to assist BBB.

X = astrocytes

38

(X) substances diffuse through BBB.

X = lipophilic (lipids, O2, CO2)

39

(X) substances undergo facilitated transport through BBB.

X = glucose

40

Most substances transported through BBB via:

Active transport

41

Pericytes exist in (X) and function to (Y).

X = basement membrane of BBB
Y = contribute to structural integrity of vasculature

42

Which area(s) of brain allow for blood monitoring via contact with vascular space?

1. Area postrema (floor of 4th ventricle)
2. Subfornical organ (near hypothalamus)

43

Initiation of vomiting reflex is done by (X).

X = area postrema

44

Subfornical organ functions to:

Detect osmolarity of blood

45

(X) area(s) in brain secrete hormones/prohormones into blood.

X = pineal gland and hypothalamus

46

Areas of brain that indiscriminately contact substances in blood are "walled off" from rest of brain via:

Tanycytes (modified astrocytes that form barrier)

47

T/F: Astrocytes provide structural support to brain that isn't very good.

True

48

CSF makes brain weight feel (X) times lighter.

X = 30

49

T/F: CSF functions both to support brain weight and buffer external forces.

True

50

List the ventricles in the brain. Star those that produce CSF.

1. Lateral ventricles (2)*
2. Third ventricle*
3. Fourth ventricle*

51

Where does CSF flow once it flows out of the (X), and last, ventricle?

X = fourth;

Into subarachnoid space

52

Cerebral ventricles are lined by (X) cells, formally called (Y).

X = epithelial
Y = ependymal

53

T/F: The ependymal cells form multiple thick layers.

False - one thick layer

54

T/F: The ependymal cells are not strongly connected.

True

55

The cerebral ventricles are lined by (X) cells that contain which key projections?

X = epithelial (ependymal)

Cilia

56

(X) cells produce CSF. They're derived from (Y) cells and contain which key projections?

X = choroidal
Y = ependymal

Microvilli

57

Choroidal cells are (simple/cuboidal/columnar). They line (X) vessels that have which characteristic?

Columnar;
X = capillaries

Fenestrated (hole-y)

58

T/F: CSF is made from plasma, but has different ionic composition than blood.

True

59

The Blood-CSF Barrier is formed by what?

Tight junctions between the choroidal cells that surround capillaries

60

Apertures in (X) ventricle allow CSF to gain access to subarachnoid space. List these apertures.

X = fourth

1. Foramina of Luskha (2) (lateral)
2. Foramen of Magendie (median)

61

Drainage of CSF out of subarachnoid space and into (X) is through (Y) structures.

X = superior sagittal sinus
Y = arachnoid granulations

62

The (X) provides insight into metabolic status of CNS.

X = CSF