05a: Pharyngeal Arches Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 05a: Pharyngeal Arches Deck (79):
1

Pharyngeal arches have a core of (X) tissue, surrounded by (Y) tissue on outside and (Z) tissue on inside.

X = mesenchymal (paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm, neural crest cells)
Y = surface ectoderm
Z = endodermal epithelium

2

T/F: neural crest cells migrate only into specific pharyngeal arches.

False - migrate into all of them

3

First pharyngeal arch has (X) number of prominence(s) formed by (Y). List them.

X = 2
Y = migrating neural crest cells

1. Maxillary prominence
2. Mandibular prominence

4

Which pharyngeal arch never forms?

Fifth

5

Pharyngeal (X) partially separate the pharyngeal arches.

X = grooves (clefts) and pouches

6

Pharyngeal grooves/clefts are composed of (X) tissue. Pharyngeal pouches are (external/internal) outpockets of (Y) tissue.

X = ectoderm
Internal;
Y = endoderm

7

The pharyngeal membranes are (X)-layered structures of (Y) tissue.

X = 2
Y = ectoderm and endoderm

8

Each pharyngeal arch contains which structures?

1. Cartilaginous skeletal and muscle component
2. CT component
3. Cranial nerve
4. Aortic arch artery

9

T/F: All pharyngeal arches form simultaneously.

False - cranial to caudal fashion

10

Face bones and skull form via (X) bone formation, meaning the bone develops in:

X = intramembranous
Develops in well vascularized mesenchyme

11

Limbs/weight-bearing bones form via (X) bone formation, meaning the bone develops in:

X = endochondral (intra-cartilaginous)
Develops in pre-existing cartilage model

12

Maxillary prominence of (X) pharyngeal arch has which cartilage? The cartilage has large contribution to (Y).

X = first;
Palatopterygoquadrate cartilage
Y = nothing (regresses; no remnants)

13

Mandibular prominence of (X) pharyngeal arch has which cartilage? The prominence has large contribution to (Y).

X = first
Meckel's cartilage;
Y = face

14

Incus and Malleus form from (X), part of (Y) pharyngeal arch. They form via (Z) bone formation.

X = Meckel's cartilage (of mandibular prominence)
Y = first
Z = endochondral

15

The perichondrium of Meckel's cartilage forms:

1. Anterior ligament of malleus
2. Sphenomandibular ligament

16

Maxillary prominence of (X) pharyngeal arch forms (Y) bones via (Z) process of bone formation.

X = first
Y = Temporal (squamous part), maxillary, zygomatic, palatine
Z = intramembranous

17

Mandible forms from (X), part of (Y) pharyngeal arch. It form via (Z) bone formation.

X = mandibular prominence
Y = first
Z = intramembranous

18

T/F: All bones formed from first pharyngeal arch mesenchyme via intramembranous ossification are derived from neural crest cells.

True

19

Muscles of first pharyngeal arch, with innervation from (X) nerve.

X = trigeminal

1. Mastication muscles (4)
2. Tensor veli palatini
3. Tensor tympani
4. Anterior digastric
5. Mylohyoid

20

Second pharyngeal arch has (X) cartilage that gives rise to:

X = Reichert's

1. Stapes
2. Styloid process
3. Stylohyoid ligament
4. Lesser horn and upper body of hyoid

21

Muscles of second pharyngeal arch, with innervation from (X) nerve.

X = facial

1. Facial expression muscles
2. Stapedius
3. Stylohyoid
4. Posterior digastric

22

Third pharyngeal arch gives rise to (X) bones via (Y) process.

X = lower body and greater horn of hyoid
Y = endochondral ossification

23

Muscles of third pharyngeal arch, with innervation from (X) nerve.

X = glossopharyngeal

Stylopharyngeus

24

(X) and (Y) pharyngeal arches merge together and form (Z) via which ossification process?

X = fourth
Y = sixth
Z = laryngeal cartilages

No ossification process

25

(X) cartilages of fourth and sixth pharyngeal arches are the only ones that form from (Y).

X = laryngeal;
Y = lateral plate mesoderm

26

Muscles of fourth pharyngeal arch, with innervation from (X) nerve.

X = vagus (pharyngeal branch)

1. Soft palate muscles (except TVP)
2. Pharyngeal muscles (except stylopharyngeus)

27

Muscles of sixth pharyngeal arch, with innervation from (X) nerve.

X = vagus (recurrent laryngeal branch)

1. Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
2. Upper esophagus

28

First pharyngeal arch artery

Maxillary

29

Second pharyngeal arch artery

Stapedial and hyoid arteires

30

Third pharyngeal arch artery

Common carotid and proximal ICA/ECA

31

Fourth pharyngeal arch artery

Left: Aortic arch and left subclavian
Right: Right subclavian

32

Sixth pharyngeal arch artery

Pulmonary arteries and ductus arteriosus

33

Pharyngeal pouches and clefts are (cranial/caudal) to same-numbered arch.

Caudal

34

(X) pharyngeal pouch forms stalk-like extension that expands toward (Y). What do the proximal and distal portions of the pouch form?

X = first
Y = first pharyngeal cleft;

Distal: epithelial lining of tympanic cavity
Proximal: narrows to form eustachian tube

35

Second pharyngeal pouch forms (X) in adult.

X = epithelium of palatine tonsil

36

Which specific tissue type proliferates in (X) to eventually form epithelium of palatine tonsil?

X = second pharyngeal pouch

Epithelial lining (endoderm)

37

Third pharyngeal pouch forms (X) and (Y) regions. What does each become?

X = dorsal;
Y = ventral

Dorsal: Inferior parathyroid (glandular epithelial cells)
Ventral: Stroma of thymus

38

T/F: The glandular epithelial cells of parathyroid formed from pharyngeal pouch are the chief cells that secrete PTH.

True

39

Fourth pharyngeal pouch forms (X) and (Y) regions. What does each become?

X = dorsal;
Y = ventral

Dorsal: Glandular epithelial cells of superior parathyroid
Ventral: Ultimobranchial body (parafollicular cells in thyroid, surrounding thyroid follicles)

40

Only adult derivates of pharyngeal grooves.

First pharyngeal groove becomes external auditory meatus

41

Only adult derivates of pharyngeal membrane.

Tympanic membrane

42

Tongue develops as a result of proliferation of (X) tissue.

X = endoderm and mesenchyme (of pharyngeal floor)

43

Anterior (X) portion of tongue forms from swellings of mesenchyme beneath (Y) tissue of (Z) pharyngeal arch. List the swellings and star those that contribute to adult tongue.

X = 2/3
Y = endodermal epithelium
Z = first

2 lateral swellings* and 1 median swelling

44

Posterior (X) portion of tongue forms from swelling of mesenchyme beneath (Y) tissue of (Z) pharyngeal arch. This swelling is formally called:

X = 1/3
Y = endodermal epithelium
Z = third and fourth

Hypobranchial/hypopharyngeal

45

During tongue development, the (X) arch(es) overgrow the (Y) arch and fuse with anterior portion at (Z) landmark.

X = third and fourth
Y = second
Z = terminal sulcus

46

Muscles of tongue arise from (X) that migrate forward to developing tongue. The (Y) nerve follows during migration to innervate (most/all) tongue muscles.

X = occipital somites
Y = hypoglossal
Most (not palatoglossus)

47

List tongue muscles. Star those innervated by common CN (X).

1. Palatoglossus
2. Styloglossus*
3. Hyoglossus*
4. Genioglossus*

48

General sensation to anterior 2/3 tongue provided by (X) branch of CN (Y).

X = lingual
Y = 5

49

Special (taste) sensation to anterior 2/3 tongue provided by (X) branch of CN (Y).

X = chorda tympani
Y = 7

50

General sensation to posterior 1/3 tongue provided by CN (X).

X = 9 and 10 (small portion)

51

Special (taste) sensation to posterior 1/3 tongue provided by CN (X).

X = 9

52

First endocrine gland to develop is (X). It's first seen as thickening of (Y) tissue on floor of (Z), between which pharyngeal arches?

X = thyroid gland
Y = endoderm
Z = upper pharynx

1st and 2nd arches

53

T/F: The thyroid diverticulum forms epithelial lining of thyroid and glandular cells migrate in.

False - diverticulum forms glandular cells of thyroid

54

A mass of proliferating endoderm at foramen cecum of developing (X) will eventually migrate in which directions to become (Y)?

X = tongue
Migrates caudally and ventrally;
Y = thyroid gland

55

In adult, the foramen cecum is a remnant of (X) that persists as pit in (Y).

X = proximal thyroglossal duct
Y = tongue (junction between anterior 2/3 and post 1/3)

56

T/F: The entire thyroid gland develops from thyroid diverticulum.

False - Parafollicular cells develop from ultimobranchial body (4th pharyngeal pouch)

57

A branchial cyst/fistula will be located (laterally/midline) along (X) border of (Y) muscle.

Laterally;
X = anterior
Y = SCM

58

A thyroglossal cyst is remnant of (X) and can be found (laterally/midline) at (Y).

X = thyroglossal duct;
Midline;
Y = any point of migration path of thyroid gland

59

Treacher Collins Syndrome is manifestation of a (X) syndrome that presents in which symptoms?

X = first arch

1. Malar (zygomatic) and mandibular hypoplasia
2. Ear/eye malformation

60

Robin Syndrome is manifestation of a (X) syndrome that presents in which symptoms?

X = first arch

Triad complex (sequential):
1. Mandible hypoplasia
2. Posteriorly placed tongue
3. Cleft palate

61

DiGeorge Syndrome is result of failure of (X) to differentiate. It presents in which symptoms?

X = third and fourth pharyngeal pouch

1. Hypoplasia or absent thymus (immune deficiencies)
2. Absence of parathyroids
3. CV and facial abnormalities

62

The five facial prominences consist primarily of (X)-derived (Y) tissue. List these prominences.

X = neural crest cell
Y = mesenchyme

1. Maxillary (bilateral)
2. Mandibular (bilateral)
3. Frontonasal (midline)

63

Thickenings of surface ectoderm appear on both sides of frontonasal prominence and are called (X). These eventually invaginate to form (Y), surrounded by (Z).

X = nasal placodes
Y = nasal pits
Z = nasal prominences (medial and lateral)

64

The (medial/lateral) nasal prominence is separated from the maxillary prominence by (X).

Lateral;
X = nasolacrimal groove

65

(X) tissue on the floor of the nasolacrimal groove forms (Y) cord that eventually becomes (Z).

X = ectoderm;
Y = epithelial
Z = nasolacrimal duct

66

Maxillary prominences proliferate and grow (outward/inward).

Inward (toward each other)

67

As development continues, the medial nasal prominences will undergo (superficial/deep) compression and form (X). Which structures will develop from (X)?

Both superficial and deep;
X = intermaxillary segment

1. Philtrum (of upper lip)
2. Premaxilla (with 4 incisor teeth)
3. Primary palate

68

T/F: The intermaxillary segment, once formed, is fused to maxillary prominences on each side of it.

True

69

Secondary palate forms which part(s) of adult palate?

Majority of hard palate and all of soft palate

70

Primary palate forms which part(s) of adult palate?

Small part of adult hard palate

71

Secondary palate forms by fusion of (X), which are internal projections of (Y).

X = lateral palatine shelves
Y = maxillary prominences

72

During development of (primary/secondary) palate, which structure may initially be in the way of palatine shelf fusion?

Secondary; the tongue

73

The nasal septum develops as (upward/downward/medial) growth of which structure?

Downward; frontonasal prominence

74

In order for normal development of adult palate, which key fusions must occur?

Lateral palatine shelves with each other and with:

1. Primary palate
2. Nasal septum

75

Bone develops in (hard/soft) palate(s) by (X) ossification.

Hard;
X = intramembranous

76

Soft palate has (bone/cartilage) and muscle that migrates from (X).

Neither;
X = pharyngeal arches

77

The incisive fossa is a persistent (X) between (Y).

X = canal;
Y = premaxilla and palatine parts of the maxilla

78

(X) is dividing landmark between anterior and posterior cleft deformities.

X = incisive fossa

79

T/F: Three categories of cleft palate/lip, depending on whether lip, palate, or both is/are affected.

True