Flashcards in 04a: Pharynx and Larynx Deck (68):
List the regions that make up the pharynx.
Superior and inferior borders of nasopharynx.
Base of skull to distal uvula
Superior and inferior borders of oropharynx.
Distal uvula to apex of epiglottis
Superior and inferior borders of laryngopharynx.
Apex of epiglottis to arytenoid cartilage
Posterior anchor of pharynx is formed by (X) tissue and formally called (Y).
X = (thin) connective
Y = pharyngeal raphe
The (X) muscles, which is/are the largest pharynx muscle(s), originate(s) on:
X = superior, middle, inferior pharyngeal constrictor
The characteristic "gaps" in lateral walls of pharynx are between:
1. Base of skull and superior pharyngeal constrictor
2. Superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors
3. Lower border of hyoid and upper thyroid cartilage
Upper pharyngeal gap is covered by (X).
X = pharyngobasilar fascia
The (X) pharyngeal gap transmits a ligament, nerve, and muscle. Name them.
X = middle
1. Stylohyoid ligament
2. CN IX
3. Stylopharyngeus muscle
The (X) pharyngeal gap is completed by (Y) ligament and transmits (Z) neurovascular bundle.
X = lower
Y = thyrohyoid
Z = internal laryngeal
List the muscles associated with pharynx.
1. Pharyngeal constrictors (3)
Tonsils are masses of (X) tissue. List the specific types of tonsils.
X = lymphoid
Lingual tonsils location.
Posterior 1/3 of tongue
Pharyngeal tonsils location.
Above and behind pharyngotympanic (eustachian) tube
Palatine tonsils location.
Fossa between palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches (in oral cavity)
Larynx lies anterior to which vertebrae?
Laryngopharynx is located where, wrt larynx?
Which key ligaments suspend (X), the "clothes hanger" for the larynx?
X = hyoid bone
List the single, unpaired cartilages of the larynx.
(Smallest/largest) cartilage of larynx is also the most superficial. Which cartilage is this?
Which structure forms the Adam's Apple?
Thyroid cartilage (of larynx)
(X) guards the opening of the trachea.
X = epiglottic cartilage
(X) cartilage attaches to the first ring of the trachea.
X = cricoid
The body of the larynx is formed by which two principal structures?
Thyroid and cricoid cartilages
(X) and (Y) cartilages of larynx articulate by two hinge joints.
X = thyroid
Y = cricoid
List the paired cartilages of the larynx.
4. Cartilagio triticea
Arytenoid cartilages are located atop (X). List the ways in which they can move.
X = cricoid cartilage
Rotate; slide forward or laterally
(X) cartilages resemble small horns and are located atop (Y).
X = corniculate
Y = arytenoid cartilages
(X) cartilages are embedded in ari-epiglottic folds. What's the function?
X = cuneiform
Stiffen it to prevent inward collapsing
(X) laryngeal cartilages, literally meaning "rice-grain" are teensy bits of cartilage embedded in (Y) ligament.
X = cartilagio triticea;
Y = thyrohyoid
List the principle synovial joints in laryngeal apparatus. Which motion found at each?
1. Cricothyroid (hinge)
2. Crico-arytenoid (sliding and rotation)
Unlike intrinsic muscles, extrinsic muscles of larynx contract and move (X) relative to (Y).
X = entire larynx
Y = surrounding structures
List extrinsic elevator muscles of larynx.
List extrinsic depressor muscles of larynx.
(X) is the only external muscle of larynx that acts on the internal (Y) joint. What's its action?
X = Y = cricothyroid
1. Flexion of cricothyroid joint (forward)
2. Increase tension on vocal cords
List intrinsic muscles of larynx (yes - all of them)...
1. Cricoarytenoids (posterior and lateral)
2. Thyroarytenoid (ft. Vocalis)
3. Transverse and oblique arytenoids
Posterior cricoarytenoids contract and cause (X) action for (Y) purpose.
X = Wide aperture; vocal folds open (via rotation of arytenoids)
Y = inhalation
Lateral cricoarytenoids contract and cause:
Vocal folds to close; narrow aperture (via rotation of arytenoids)
Eustachian, aka (X), tube, has what type of texture in its proximal/distal parts?
X = pharyngotympanic
Bony (proximal) and cartilaginous (distal)
Eustachian tube is a tube that runs between (X) and (Y).
X = tympanic cavity
Y = pharynx
List muscles that help open/close eustachian tube. Which nerves innervate each?
1. Tensor veli palatini (V3 of CN V)
2. Levator veli palatini (CN X)
3. Tensor tympani (V3 of CN V)
4. Sphyngopharyngeus (CN X)
Arytenoid cartilages articulate with cricoid cartilage (anteriorly/posteriorly) and (superiorly/inferiorly).
Cricoid cartilage has lateral facets for articulation with (X) process of (Y).
X = inferior horn
Y = thyroid cartilage
Laryngeal prominence of (X) cartilage is on which surface?
X = thyroid
Epiglottic cartilage is attached to (X) via (Y) ligament.
X = thyroid cartilage
Y = thyro-epiglottic ligament
Epiglottic tubercle is on which surface of epiglottis?
List the processes (and respective direction they face) of arytenoid cartilage.
1. Apex (superior)
2. Muscular (lateral)
3. Vocal (anterior)
Thickening of thyrohyoid membrane forms (X) ligaments laterally and (Y) ligament medially.
X = lateral thyrohyoid
Y = median thyrohyoid
The true vocal ligament is formed by:
Upper free margin of the cricothyroid ligament
What's the conus elasticus?
Lateral portions of cricothyroid ligament
Upper border of quadrangular membrane.
Lateral border of epiglottis
"False" vocal ligaments are formed by:
Thickening of lower border of quadrangular membrane
What are the anterior and posterior attachments of the false vocal, aka (X) ligaments?
X = vestibular;
Arytenoid/corniculate cartilages and inside of thyroid cartilage
What forms the true and false vocal cords?
Mucosa of larynx forms true (vocal) and false (vestibular) folds around the vocal and vestibular ligaments
Inward slips of (X) muscle fibers project right into the true vocal cords. This inward projection of muscle is called (Y).
X = thyroarytenoid
Y = vocalis
Free margin of true vocal cord has which type of tissue lining?
Stratified squamous epithelium (keratinized)
Transverse and oblique arytenoid muscle contract and causes:
Closing/adduction of vocal cords
Oblique arytenoid muscle contracts and causes:
Closing of vocal cords (via rotation of arytenoids)
Sensory innervation to larynx at level of (X). Anything below receives innervation via (Y).
X = vocal fold
Internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve;
Y = recurrent laryngeal nerve
T/F: All innervation of larynx derived from Vagus nerve.
List blood supply to larynx and the arteries each branch stems from.
1. Superior thyroid (external carotid)
2. Superior laryngeal (superior thyroid)
3. Inferior thyroid (thyrocervical trunk)
4. Inferior laryngeal (inferior thyroid)
T/F: The plexus of veins draining larynx parallels the arteries.
Superior laryngeal vein drains into (X), which drains into (Y).
X = superior thyroid vein
Y = internal jugular vein
Inferior laryngeal vein drains into (X), which drains into (Y).
X = inferior thyroid vein
Y = brachiocephalic vein
Fine-tunes locations at which vocal folds are tense/loose
The (X) nerve that accompanies the superior thyroid artery is damaged during surgery. This injury impairs cricothyroid muscle, causing (increase/decrease) in tension of vocal cords.
X = external laryngeal
T/F: Posterior cricoarytenoids are the sole abductors of the vocal folds.