04a: Pharynx and Larynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 04a: Pharynx and Larynx Deck (68):
1

List the regions that make up the pharynx.

1. Nasopharynx
2. Oropharynx
3. Laryngopharynx

2

Superior and inferior borders of nasopharynx.

Base of skull to distal uvula

3

Superior and inferior borders of oropharynx.

Distal uvula to apex of epiglottis

4

Superior and inferior borders of laryngopharynx.

Apex of epiglottis to arytenoid cartilage

5

Posterior anchor of pharynx is formed by (X) tissue and formally called (Y).

X = (thin) connective
Y = pharyngeal raphe

6

The (X) muscles, which is/are the largest pharynx muscle(s), originate(s) on:

X = superior, middle, inferior pharyngeal constrictor

Pharyngeal raphe

7

The characteristic "gaps" in lateral walls of pharynx are between:

1. Base of skull and superior pharyngeal constrictor
2. Superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors
3. Lower border of hyoid and upper thyroid cartilage

8

Upper pharyngeal gap is covered by (X).

X = pharyngobasilar fascia

9

The (X) pharyngeal gap transmits a ligament, nerve, and muscle. Name them.

X = middle

1. Stylohyoid ligament
2. CN IX
3. Stylopharyngeus muscle

10

The (X) pharyngeal gap is completed by (Y) ligament and transmits (Z) neurovascular bundle.

X = lower
Y = thyrohyoid
Z = internal laryngeal

11

List the muscles associated with pharynx.

1. Pharyngeal constrictors (3)
2. Stylopharyngeus
3. Salpingopharyngeus
4. Palatopharyngeus

12

Tonsils are masses of (X) tissue. List the specific types of tonsils.

X = lymphoid

1. Lingual
2. Pharyngeal
3. Palatine

13

Lingual tonsils location.

Posterior 1/3 of tongue

14

Pharyngeal tonsils location.

Above and behind pharyngotympanic (eustachian) tube

15

Palatine tonsils location.

Fossa between palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches (in oral cavity)

16

Larynx lies anterior to which vertebrae?

C3-6

17

Laryngopharynx is located where, wrt larynx?

Posterior

18

Which key ligaments suspend (X), the "clothes hanger" for the larynx?

X = hyoid bone

Stylohyoid ligaments

19

List the single, unpaired cartilages of the larynx.

1. Thyroid
2. Cricoid
3. Epiglottic

20

(Smallest/largest) cartilage of larynx is also the most superficial. Which cartilage is this?

Largest;
Thyroid

21

Which structure forms the Adam's Apple?

Thyroid cartilage (of larynx)

22

(X) guards the opening of the trachea.

X = epiglottic cartilage

23

(X) cartilage attaches to the first ring of the trachea.

X = cricoid

24

The body of the larynx is formed by which two principal structures?

Thyroid and cricoid cartilages

25

(X) and (Y) cartilages of larynx articulate by two hinge joints.

X = thyroid
Y = cricoid

26

List the paired cartilages of the larynx.

1. Arytenoid
2. Corniculate
3. Cuneiform
4. Cartilagio triticea

27

Arytenoid cartilages are located atop (X). List the ways in which they can move.

X = cricoid cartilage

Rotate; slide forward or laterally

28

(X) cartilages resemble small horns and are located atop (Y).

X = corniculate
Y = arytenoid cartilages

29

(X) cartilages are embedded in ari-epiglottic folds. What's the function?

X = cuneiform

Stiffen it to prevent inward collapsing

30

(X) laryngeal cartilages, literally meaning "rice-grain" are teensy bits of cartilage embedded in (Y) ligament.

X = cartilagio triticea;
Y = thyrohyoid

31

List the principle synovial joints in laryngeal apparatus. Which motion found at each?

1. Cricothyroid (hinge)
2. Crico-arytenoid (sliding and rotation)

32

Unlike intrinsic muscles, extrinsic muscles of larynx contract and move (X) relative to (Y).

X = entire larynx
Y = surrounding structures

33

List extrinsic elevator muscles of larynx.

1. Geniohyoid
2. Stylohyoid
3. Mylohyoid
4. Digastric

34

List extrinsic depressor muscles of larynx.

1. Omohyoid
2. Sternohyoid
3. Sternothyroid
4. Thyrohyoid

35

(X) is the only external muscle of larynx that acts on the internal (Y) joint. What's its action?

X = Y = cricothyroid

1. Flexion of cricothyroid joint (forward)
2. Increase tension on vocal cords

36

List intrinsic muscles of larynx (yes - all of them)...

1. Cricoarytenoids (posterior and lateral)
2. Thyroarytenoid (ft. Vocalis)
3. Transverse and oblique arytenoids
4. Aryepiglotticus

37

Posterior cricoarytenoids contract and cause (X) action for (Y) purpose.

X = Wide aperture; vocal folds open (via rotation of arytenoids)
Y = inhalation

38

Lateral cricoarytenoids contract and cause:

Vocal folds to close; narrow aperture (via rotation of arytenoids)

39

Eustachian, aka (X), tube, has what type of texture in its proximal/distal parts?

X = pharyngotympanic

Bony (proximal) and cartilaginous (distal)

40

Eustachian tube is a tube that runs between (X) and (Y).

X = tympanic cavity
Y = pharynx

41

List muscles that help open/close eustachian tube. Which nerves innervate each?

1. Tensor veli palatini (V3 of CN V)
2. Levator veli palatini (CN X)
3. Tensor tympani (V3 of CN V)
4. Sphyngopharyngeus (CN X)

42

Arytenoid cartilages articulate with cricoid cartilage (anteriorly/posteriorly) and (superiorly/inferiorly).

Posteriorly; superiorly

43

Cricoid cartilage has lateral facets for articulation with (X) process of (Y).

X = inferior horn
Y = thyroid cartilage

44

Laryngeal prominence of (X) cartilage is on which surface?

X = thyroid

Anterior

45

Epiglottic cartilage is attached to (X) via (Y) ligament.

X = thyroid cartilage
Y = thyro-epiglottic ligament

46

Epiglottic tubercle is on which surface of epiglottis?

Posterior

47

List the processes (and respective direction they face) of arytenoid cartilage.

1. Apex (superior)
2. Muscular (lateral)
3. Vocal (anterior)

48

Thickening of thyrohyoid membrane forms (X) ligaments laterally and (Y) ligament medially.

X = lateral thyrohyoid
Y = median thyrohyoid

49

The true vocal ligament is formed by:

Upper free margin of the cricothyroid ligament

50

What's the conus elasticus?

Lateral portions of cricothyroid ligament

51

Upper border of quadrangular membrane.

Lateral border of epiglottis

52

"False" vocal ligaments are formed by:

Thickening of lower border of quadrangular membrane

53

What are the anterior and posterior attachments of the false vocal, aka (X) ligaments?

X = vestibular;

Arytenoid/corniculate cartilages and inside of thyroid cartilage

54

What forms the true and false vocal cords?

Mucosa of larynx forms true (vocal) and false (vestibular) folds around the vocal and vestibular ligaments

55

Inward slips of (X) muscle fibers project right into the true vocal cords. This inward projection of muscle is called (Y).

X = thyroarytenoid
Y = vocalis

56

Free margin of true vocal cord has which type of tissue lining?

Stratified squamous epithelium (keratinized)

57

Transverse and oblique arytenoid muscle contract and causes:

Closing/adduction of vocal cords

58

Oblique arytenoid muscle contracts and causes:

Closing of vocal cords (via rotation of arytenoids)

59

Sensory innervation to larynx at level of (X). Anything below receives innervation via (Y).

X = vocal fold
Internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve;
Y = recurrent laryngeal nerve

60

T/F: All innervation of larynx derived from Vagus nerve.

True

61

List blood supply to larynx and the arteries each branch stems from.

1. Superior thyroid (external carotid)
2. Superior laryngeal (superior thyroid)
3. Inferior thyroid (thyrocervical trunk)
4. Inferior laryngeal (inferior thyroid)

62

T/F: The plexus of veins draining larynx parallels the arteries.

True

63

Superior laryngeal vein drains into (X), which drains into (Y).

X = superior thyroid vein
Y = internal jugular vein

64

Inferior laryngeal vein drains into (X), which drains into (Y).

X = inferior thyroid vein
Y = brachiocephalic vein

65

Vocalis action:

Fine-tunes locations at which vocal folds are tense/loose

66

The (X) nerve that accompanies the superior thyroid artery is damaged during surgery. This injury impairs cricothyroid muscle, causing (increase/decrease) in tension of vocal cords.

X = external laryngeal
Decrease

67

T/F: Posterior cricoarytenoids are the sole abductors of the vocal folds.

True

68

The tendon of the (X) curves around the pterygoid hamulus to insert on (Y).

X = tensor veli palitini
Y = soft palate