Flashcards in 02b: Superficial Head/Face Deck (88):
(X) bone is major component of facial skeleton.
X = mandible
Forehead is part of (face/scalp).
List the layers of the scalp, from superficial to deep.
2. CT (dense)
4. Loose CT
Which scalp layer, if any, contains lymph?
There is an abundance of (arteries/veins/nerves) in (X) scalp layer. Thus, one may bleed profusely if scalp cut through to this layer.
X = dense CT layer
Aponeurotic layer of (X) contains:
X = scalp
Which scalp layers are considered one unit, referred to as (X)?
X = scalp proper
Skin, dense CT, and aponeurotic
Which scalp layer acts as "danger zone" or potential space that can be filled with fluid in injury/infection?
Loose CT layer
Muscles of facial expression derived from (X) pharyngeal arch and thus innervated by branches of (Y).
X = Second
Y = Facial nerve (CN VII)
Facial muscles in orbital group.
1. Orbicularis oculi
2. Corrugator supercili
Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis muscle attaches to:
Skin of eyebrows
Occipital belly of occipitofrontalis muscle attaches to:
Mastoid process and superior nuchal lines
Functions of occipitofrontalis muscle.
Raise eyebrows, wrinkle forehead, move scalp
Nerve supply to occipitofrontalis muscle (frontal belly).
Temporal branches of CN VII
Nerve supply to occipitofrontalis muscle (occipital belly).
Posterior auricular branch of CN VII
Frontal and occipital bellies of occipitofrontalis muscle connected by:
List parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the action associated with each.
1. Palpebral (closes eyes gently)
2. Orbital (closes eyes forcefully)
Corrugator supercili is (superficial/deep/same plane) as/to orbicularis oculi and has which action?
Draws eyebrows toward midline (active when frowning)
Facial muscles in nasal group.
produces transverse wrinkles over bridge of nose
1. Transverse part (compress nares)
2. Alar part (opens nares)
Facial muscles in upper oral group. Star the deepest muscles.
2. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi (Elvis)
3. Levator labii superioris
4. Zygomaticus major and minor
5. Levator anguli oris*
List facial muscles in upper oral group that help form grin/smile.
2. Zygomaticus major and minor
Zygomaticus major and minor attach to which surfaces of (X) bone?
X = zygomatic
Major attaches to lateral aspect; minor attaches to anterior aspect
Levator labii superioris action.
Deepens furrow between nose and corner of mouth (during sadness)
Levator anguli oris action.
Elevates corner of mouth
Facial muscles in lower oral group.
1. Depressor anguli oris
2. Depressor labii inferioris
The "pouting" muscle.
Depressor labii inferioris action.
Depresses lower lip
(X) muscle fibers completely encircle the mouth. What's its action?
X = orbicularis oris
Narrows mouth and closes lips
(X) muscle forms the muscular component of cheek. What are its attachments?
X = Buccinator
Mandible, maxilla, pterygomandibular raphe
Which oral muscle aids in mastication? How?
Buccinator; maintains position of bolus
T/F: Buccinator is an official mastication muscle.
False - only aids
Face is primarily derived from pharyngeal arch(es) (X). Which nerve(s) associated?
X = 1 and 2
1. Trigeminal (CN V)
2. Facial (CN VII)
Cutaneous innervation to face by branches of which CN? What are the major divisions?
CN V (Trigeminal)
1. Opthalmic (V1)
2. Maxillary (V2)
3. Mandibular (V3)
What's the exception to typical cutaneous innervation of face?
Great auricular nerve; sensory to angle, lower mandibular ramus, and parts of ear
(X) point marks change/difference in sensory innervation of scalp. What are the key nerves that contribute to this innervation?
X = vertex
Trigeminal (anteriorly) and cervical spinal nerves (posteriorly)
CN VII exists base of skull via (X).
X = stylomastoid foramen
Terminal branches of CN VII.
4. Marginal mandibular
(X) branch of CN (Y) innervates occipital belly of occipitofrontalis as well as (Z) muscles.
X = posterior auricular
Y = VII
Z = posterior auricular
The parotid plexus is formed within (X) by branches of (Y). List these main branches.
X = parotid gland
Y = CN VII
1. Temporofacial (upper)
2. Cervicofacial (lower)
T/F: Mucous membranes innervated by facial nerve.
The (X) artery, off (internal/external) carotid, is the major vessel supplying the face.
X = facial
Branches of facial artery. Star the terminating branch(es).
1. Superior and Inferior labial
2. Lateral nasal
T/F: The angular artery terminates at the lateral corner of the nasal wing.
False - at medial corner of orbit
Aside from facial artery, which other branches off (X) contribute to vascular supply of face?
X = External carotid
Maxillary and Superficial temporal
Branches off maxillary artery that contribute to vascular supply of face.
Branches off superficial temporal artery that contribute to vascular supply of face.
Transverse facial artery
Branches off internal carotid artery that contribute to vascular supply of face. Star the ones that also supply scalp.
1. Supra-orbital and supratrochlear*
3. Dorsal nasal artery
T/F: All vascular supply to face from internal carotid system comes from opthalmic artery.
Branches of External carotid that supply scalp.
2. Posterior auricular
3. Superficial temporal
(X) is the main vein of the face.
X = facial
Venous drainage of face: (X) come together to form (Y) vein. As it travels inferiorly, it receives (Z) vein and becomes the facial vein.
X = supraorbital and supratrochlear
Y = angular
Z = deep facial
Facial vein joins (X) vein to form (Y) vein that finally drains into (Z).
X = anterior retromandibular
Y = common facial
Z = IJV
Which vein(s) drain the pterygoid venous plexus?
1. Deep facial
Retromandibular vein formed by union of (X) veins.
X = superficial temporal and maxillary
Retromandibular vein branches into (X) and (Y) at which landmark?
X = anterior branch
Y = posterior branch
Upon emerging from inferior surface of parotid gland
Posterior branch of retromandibular vein unites with (X) to form (Y), which finally drains into (Z).
X = posterior auricular
Y = external jugular vein
Z = subclavian
The largest of the main salivary glands is (X). It's found at which landmark?
X = parotid
Covers temperomandibular joint
Parotid duct exits anterior parotid gland between which landmarks?
(Midway between) Zygomatic arch and corner of mouth
Parotid duct pierces (X) to enter oral cavity near second (upper/lower) molar tooth.
X = buccinator
List the three major structures that pass through parotid gland.
1. Facial nerve
2. External carotid artery (and some branches)
3. Retromandibular vein
Skin overlying parotid gland and sheath innervated by which nerves?
1. Greater auricular (cervical plexus)
2. Auriculotemporal (V3)
Parasympathetic innervation to parotid gland stimulates (X).
X = gland secretion
Sympathetic innervation to parotid gland stimulates (X).
X = reduced salivation
Tumor in salivary glands are typically (benign/malignant).
List the various things that enter lymphatic capillaries
Interstitial fluid, which can contain:
1. Cells of lymphocytic system
2. Cell product/debris
Lymph vessels merge as they get closer to:
The lymphatic trunks, (X) and (Y), each drain which part of body?
X = right lymphatic duct (right upper quadrant)
Y = thoracic duct (rest of body)
Both thoracic and right lymph ducts enter (X) at the junction of (Y).
X = Subclavian vein
Y = IJV
Near the junction with the venous system, the thoracic duct is joined by:
1. Left jugular trunk
2. Subclavian trunk
Near the junction with the venous system, the right lymph duct is joined by:
1. Right jugular trunk
2. Right subclavian trunk
There are (superficial/deep) lymph nodes along IJV and (superficial/deep) nodes along EJV.
Ultimately, all lymph nodes go into (X), which then go into (Y).
X = Deep cervical nodes
Y = right and left jugular trunks
Posterior scalp and neck drained by (X) lymph nodes.
X = occipital
Posterolateral scalp drained by (X) lymph nodes.
X = Mastoid
Anterolateral scalp and upper half of face drained by (X) lymph nodes.
X = pre-auricular and parotid
Anterior face drained by (X) lymph nodes.
X = submandibular
Gingiva and most of teeth drained by (X) lymph nodes.
X = submandibular
Lower lip drained by (X) lymph nodes.
X = submental
Chin floor of mouth and lower incisor teeth drained by (X) lymph nodes.
X = submental
Deep cervical lymph nodes are formed by two groups. List them and their relationship to particular landmarks.
1. Jugulodigastric (superior at level of posterior digastric muscle)
2. Jugulo-omohyoid (inferior to omohyoid tendon)
Lymphatic vessels from pharynx drain into which nodes?
Palatine tonsils drain into which lymph nodes?
Root of tongue drains into (X) lymph nodes.
X = jugulodigastric
Medial tongue body drains into (X) lymph nodes.
X = Jugulo-omohyoid
Lateral parts of anterior tongue drain into (X) lymph nodes.
X = submandibular