02a: Neck Triangles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 02a: Neck Triangles Deck (65):
1

SCM attachments.

Sternum, clavicle, mastoid process (temporal bone)

2

SCM nerve innervation.

Accessory (CN XI)

3

SCM actions

Unilat: ipsilateral lat flexion and contralateral rotation
Bilateral: Cervical flexion

4

List scalene muscles.

Anterior, posterior, middle

5

Scalene muscles are (superficial/deep) to SCM.

Deep

6

Scalene attachments.

From: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

To: first two ribs

7

Scalene actions

(Bilaterally) Assist in neck flexion and raise first two ribs

8

Scalene nerve innervation

Ventral rami of cervical nerves

9

List the suprahyoid muscles.

1. Mylohyoid
2. Digastric
3. Stylohyoid
4. Geniohyoid

10

List infrahyoid muscles.

1. Omohyoid
2. Sternothyroid
3. Sternohyoid
4. Thyrohyoid

11

Visceral layer of neck includes which gland(s)?

Thyroid and parathyroid

12

Thyroid gland produces (X) which functions to:

X =
1. Thyroid hormone (controls metabolism rate)
2. Calcitonin hormone (controls Ca metabolism)

13

Parathyroid gland produces (X) which functions to:

X = Parathyroid hormone (regulates Ca metabolism)

14

Platysma attaches to (X) tissue of (supra/infra)-clavicular regions.

X = subcutaneous

Both (supra and infra clavicular regions)

15

Superior attachments of platysma include:

1. Base of mandible
2. cheek skin
3. angle of mouth
4. Orbicularis oris

16

Superior attachments of platysma have which actions?

Tense skin, producing vertical skin ridges

17

Inferior attachments of platysma have which actions?

Depress mandible and draw corners of mouth inferiorly (grimace)

18

Platysma nerve innervation

Cervical branch of facial nerve

19

Cervical plexus roots.

Anterior rami C1-4

20

There are (X) number of cutaneous branches and (Y) number of motor branches off cervical plexus.

X = 4
Y = 2

21

List cutaneous branches off cervical plexus.

1. Transverse cervical
2. Greater auricular
3. Lesser occipital
4. Supraclavicular

22

List motor branches off cervical plexus.

1. Ansa cervicalis
2. Phrenic

23

Ansa cervicalis innervates:

Infrahyoid muscles

24

Cutaneous nerves off cervical plexus innervate which area(s)?

1. Side of neck
2. Top of shoulder
3. Lower part of face
4. Skull behind ear

25

Cervical plexus branches emerge from "(X)", which is at the (Y) border of which muscle?

X = Erb's point
Y = (middle of) posterior

SCM

26

Which nerve(s) emerge from the same location as the branches of cervical plexus?

Accessory nerve (CN XI)

27

(X) is the first layer of cervical fascia. What does this layer contain?

X = superficial cervical fascia

Cutaneous nerves, blood/lymph vessels, superficial lymph nodes, fat, and platysma (anteriorly)

28

List the layers of the deep cervical fascia.

1. Superficial (investing)
2. Pretracheal
3. Prevertebral

29

Superficial (investing) fascia encloses which structure(s)?

Traps and SCM

30

The (X) layer of cervical fascia extends inferiorly and blends with fibrous pericardium of heart.

X = pretracheal

31

The pretracheal layer of deep cervical fascia encloses which structure(s)?

1. Infrahyoid muscles (in muscular layer)
2. Thyroid gland and trachea (in visceral layer)

32

The (X) fascia is the thin, (anterior/posterior) lamina of pretrachial fascia. It separates:

X = buccopharyngeal
Posterior;

Separates esophagus from prevertebral fascia

33

(X) fascia is large sheath enclosing scaliness, deep back muscles, vertebrae, etc. It also contributes to (anterior/posterior) portion of (Y).

X = prevertebral
Posterior;
Y = carotid sheath

34

The prevertebral fascia splits (anteriorly/posteriorly/laterally) into which laminae? Star the most anterior.

Anteriorly;

1. Alar*
2. Still Prevertebral fascia

35

T/F: The fascial spaces in neck are only potential spaces.

True

36

Retropharyngeal space anterior and posterior boundaries.

Ant: Buccopharyngeal fascia
Post: Alar fascia

37

Retropharyngeal space lateral boundaries.

Carotid sheaths

38

Retropharyngeal space superior and inferior boundaries.

Superior: base of skull
Inferior: Mediastinum

39

T/F: Retropharyngeal space is posterior to trachea and anterior to pharynx and larynx.

False - posterior to all three

40

The "danger" or (X) space has which anterior/posterior boundaries?

X = prevertebral

Ant: Alar fascia
Post: Prevertebral fascia

41

Prevertebral space extends from (X) to (Y) vertically.

X = base of skull
Y = diaphragm

42

Anterior and posterior triangles are separated from each other by:

SCM

43

List the posterior triangle subdivisions. Star the larger.

1. Occipital*
2. Omoclavicular/subclavian

44

Borders of occipital triangle.

1. Traps
2. SCM
3. Inferior belly of omohyoid

45

Contents of occipital triangle.

1. EJV
2. Brachial plexus (trunks) and cervical plexus (branches)
3. CN XI
4. Transverse cervical a
5. Cervical lymph nodes

46

Borders of subclavian (omoclavicular) triangle.

1. SCM
2. Clavicle
3. Inferior belly of omohyoid

47

Contents of subclavian (omoclavicular) triangle.

1. Subclavian a and v
2. Suprascapular a
3. Supraclavicular lymph nodes

48

(X) is typical point of entry for central line placement.

X = subclavian vein

49

Borders of anterior triangle.

1. Midline of neck
2. SCM
3. Mandible (inferior border)

50

Anterior triangle can be subdivided into small triangles by (X).

X = omohyoid and digastric muscles

51

List subdivisions of anterior triangle.

1. Submandibular
2. Submental
3. Carotid
4. Muscular

52

Carotid triangle boundaries.

1. SCM
2. Superior belly of omohyoid
3. Posterior belly of digastric

53

Carotid triangle contents.

1. Hypoglossal (CN XII)
2. Ansa cervicalis
3. Carotid sheath
4. Sympathetic trunk

54

At (X) vertebra, which is also the level of (Y), the carotid pulse can be palpated.

X = C6
Y = cricoid cartilage

55

Muscular triangle boundaries.

1. Hyoid and midline of neck
2. SCM
3. Superior belly of omohyoid

56

Muscular triangle contents.

1. Infrahyoid muscles
2. Thyroid and parathyroid glands

57

Submandibular triangle boundaries.

1. Anterior digastric
2. Mandible
3. Posterior digastric

58

Submandibular triangle contents.

1. Submandibular gland
2. Facial a and v
3. Submandibular lymph nodes

59

Submental triangle boundaries.

1. Both anterior digastric bellies
2. Hyoid bone

60

Submental triangle contents.

1. Submental lymph nodes
2. Tributaries of anterior jugular vein

61

Omohyoid attachments.

Scapula to clavicle to hyoid

62

Sternohyoid attachments.

Manubrium to hyoid

63

Sternothyroid attachments.

Manubrium to thyroid cartilage

64

Thyrohyoid attachments.

Thyroid cartilage to hyoid

65

Which (infra/supra)-hyoid muscles attach to floor of oral cavity.

Suprahyoid;

Mylohyoid and geniohyoid